Umbricius is about to depart Roma for Cumae. The narrator says he would himself prefer Prochyta to the Suburra, and he describes the ancient shrine of Egeria being put up for rent to Jews and polluted by marble.
lines 3.21-57 – Umbricius: There is no opportunity in Roma for an honest man.
lines 3.58-125 – Umbricius: The Greeks and their ways are flowing like pollution into Roma, and they are so adept at lying flattery that they are achieving more social advancement than real Romans.
lines 3.126-163 – Umbricius: The dregs of society so long as they are wealthy lord it over real Romans; there is no hope for an honest man in court if he is poor.
lines 3.164-189 – Umbricius: Virtue and lack of pretension is only to be found outside the City; at Roma everything is expensive, pretentious, and bought on credit.
lines 3.190-231 – Umbricius contrasts the perils and degradation of living in Roma with the easy and cheap life outside the City.
lines 3.232-267 – Umbricius: The streets of Roma are annoying and dangerous if you are not rich enough to ride in a litter.
lines 3.268-314 – Umbricius: Travel by night in Roma is fraught with danger from falling tiles, thugs, and robbers
There are over 1,350 known hill forts in England and Wales.
Given the effects of erosion, some smaller sites have been destroyed and the actual number of hill forts constructed was probably higher, possibly around 1,600. England's hill forts are concentrated in the south and west,
with especially high numbers in the south-western peninsula (Devon and Cornwall have a total of 285 hill forts).
There are also 570 hill forts in Wales,
and some in Scotland. Although some originate in the Bronze Age, the majority of hill forts in Britain were constructed during the Iron Age (about 8th century BC to the Roman conquest of Britain). There was a trend in the 2nd century BC for hill forts to fall out of use.
Politics & Military History117 Chinese expand to the north west, garrisoning Gansu, the gateway to Central Asia. 115 Teutons and Cimbri leave their homelands in Germany. 112 Rome at war with Jugurtha, King of Numidia. Ill Chinese conquer Kingdom of Nan Yue (south China plus north Vietnam).
108 Chinese conquer North Korea.
106 Jugurtha captured.
105 Teutons and Cimbri defeat the Romans at Orange. 102 Roman General Marius defeats the Teutons at Aquae Sextiae (Aix en Provence): defeats the Cimbri at Vercellae (101).91-89 ‘Social War’ in Italy between Rome and her Italian allies ends with all Italians getting Roman citizenship.
86 Sulla defeats Mithradates VI of Pontus in Anatolia; establishes dictatorship in Rome (82-79).
= Bantu migration of Negro peoples from west Africa into central Africa begins.68 Chinese pull back behind the Great Wall.
66 Pompey finally disposes of Mithradates: campaigns in trans-Caucasia (65); deposes last Seleucid (64) and organises the whole of the eastern Mediterranean into provinces of states subordinate to Rome. 62 Pompey returns to Italy.
60 Pompey, Caesar and Crassus form the First Triumvirate.
59-51 Caesar conquers Gaul with side expeditions to Germany (55 and 53) and Britain (55 and 54).
53 Crassus killed by the Parthians at Carrhae.49 Civil war between Caesar and Pompey ends in Pompey’s defeat at Pharsalus (48).
47-44 Dictatorship of Caesar ends with his assassination.
43 Second Triumvirate of Antony (Caesar’s lieutenant), Octavian (Caesar’s heir) and Lepidus (a nonentity): defeats Caesar’s assassins at Philippi (42) and divides empire (40). 40 Herod recognized as King of Judea by the Romans: takes Jerusalem (37).
36 Lepidus dropped.
31 Octavian defeats Antony at Actium: suicide of Antony and Cleopatra (30).
27 Octavian takes the name Augustus.20 Parthians restore the standards captured at Battle o Carrhae in 53.
2 Augustus, who has refused the title of Dictator (but has been running the empire single-handed all the same), accepts the title of Pater Patriae.
= Bantu peoples reach Lake Victoria, Africa.
Religion & Learning113 Prince Liu Sheng, half brother of Emperor Wu Di, buried at Mancheng, Hebei, in a ‘jade suit’. Made of 2,690 separate jade plates sewn together with gold wire, the suit is an example of a type of burial gear exclusive to the imperial family.= Sima Qian’s Historical Records lays the foundations for Chinese historical writings.70 Cicero makes his
reputation by prosecuting
Verres, retiring Governor of
Sicily, for corruption.
c60 Diodorus begins work on
his World History.
c55 Lucretius On Nature.
51 Caesar Gallic War.48 Fire destroys the Royal Library at Alexandria.
47 Varro, Librarian of Rome, publishes his 41 volume encyclopaedia. c40 Sallust Jugurthine War. c30 Vitruvius On Architecture. 26 First volume of Livy’s History of Rome published.4 Death of Herod the Great traditionally associated with birth of Christ and ‘Massacre of the Innocents’.
Cities & Social Development118 Narbonne founded, the first Roman colony outside Italy. Becomes the capital of the province of Transalpine (southern) Gaul.87 Athens sacked by Sulla.73-71 Rebellion of the gladiators of Capua led by Spartacus.= Julius Caesar plans the refounding of Carthage and Corinth as Roman colonies: Augustus implements these plans on becoming Emperor.
Other important provincial colonies founded at this time include Lyons, Nimes, Trier and Seville.22 Herod founds Caesarea: begins rebuilding of the Temple of Jerusalem (20).
= Augustan building programme at Rome includes Theatre of Marcellus (13), Altar of Peace (9) and Augustan Forum (2).
= Construction of Temple (Maison Carree) and aqueduc (Pont du Gard) of Nimes.
— Aosta and Turin founded following Augustus’ pacification of the Alps.
Discovery & Invention= Cargo of Rhodian ship wrecked off Antikythera includes cogwheel device for calculating the relative motions of the sun, moon and 5 known planets (recovered 1900-2).
= Opening of trans-Asian ‘silk route’ between China and the West.= Invention of glass-blowing (?in the Levant) leads to glass vessels of all sizes and shapes becoming common articles throughout the Roman world.46 Caesar institutes the Julian calendar based purely on the solar (tropical) year. Uses value of 365.250 days as against true value of 365.242. 36 Mexico: Earliest surviving example of a dating inscription in the ‘Long Count’ style invented by the Olmecs.
= Use of the water wheel general in the Roman world.
= Tower of the Winds, Athens, bearing a wind vane and nine sundials and containing a water-clock: this probably operated an astronomical dial of the type later used in medieval astrolabes.
Black Dog,Berry Castle is an earthwork probably dating to the Iron Age close to Black Dog in Devon north of Crediton and west of Tiverton. It does not fit the traditional pattern of an Iron Age Hill fort. Although the earthwork would seem to be an incomplete enclosure, it is not at the top of a hill, although it is on the south east slope of a major hill which peaks at 199 Metres above Sea Level