Umbricius is about to depart Roma for Cumae. The narrator says he would himself prefer Prochyta to the Suburra, and he describes the ancient shrine of Egeria being put up for rent to Jews and polluted by marble.
– Umbricius: There is no opportunity in Roma for an honest man.
– Umbricius: The Greeks and their ways are flowing like pollution into Roma, and they are so adept at lying flattery that they are achieving more social advancement than real Romans.
– Umbricius: The dregs of society so long as they are wealthy lord it over real Romans; there is no hope for an honest man in court if he is poor.
lines 3.164-189 – Umbricius: Virtue and lack of pretension is only to be found outside the City; at Roma everything is expensive, pretentious, and bought on credit.
lines 3.190-231 – Umbricius contrasts the perils and degradation of living in Roma with the easy and cheap life outside the City.
Umbricius: The streets of Roma are annoying and dangerous if you are not rich enough to ride in a litter.
Umbricius: Travel by night in Roma is fraught with danger from falling tiles, thugs, and robbers
There are over 1,350 known hill forts in England and Wales.
Given the effects of erosion, some smaller sites have been destroyed and the actual number of hill forts constructed was probably higher, possibly around 1,600. England's hill forts are concentrated in the south and west,
with especially high numbers in the south-western peninsula (Devon and Cornwall have a total of 285 hill forts).
There are also 570 hill forts in Wales,
and some in Scotland. Although some originate in the Bronze Age, the majority of hill forts in Britain were constructed during the Iron Age (about 8th century BC to the Roman conquest of Britain). There was a trend in the 2nd century BC for hill forts to fall out of use.
53 Crassus killed by the Parthians at Carrhae.49 Civil war between Caesar and Pompey ends in Pompey’s defeat at Pharsalus (48).
47-44 Dictatorship of Caesar ends with his assassination.
43 Second Triumvirate of Antony (Caesar’s lieutenant), Octavian (Caesar’s heir) and Lepidus (a nonentity): defeats Caesar’s assassins at Philippi (42) and divides empire (40). 40 Herod recognized as King of Judea by the Romans: takes Jerusalem (37).
36 Lepidus dropped.
31 Octavian defeats Antony at Actium: suicide of Antony and Cleopatra (30).
27 Octavian takes the name Augustus.20 Parthians restore the standards captured at Battle o Carrhae in 53.
2 Augustus, who has refused the title of Dictator (but has been running the empire single-handed all the same), accepts the title of Pater Patriae.
= Bantu peoples reach Lake Victoria, Africa.
Religion & Learning113 Prince Liu Sheng, half brother of Emperor Wu Di, buried at Mancheng, Hebei, in a ‘jade suit’. Made of 2,690 separate jade plates sewn together with gold wire, the suit is an example of a type of burial gear exclusive to the imperial family.= Sima Qian’s Historical Records lays the foundations for Chinese historical writings.70 Cicero makes his
reputation by prosecuting
Verres, retiring Governor of
Sicily, for corruption.
c60 Diodorus begins work on
his World History.
c55 Lucretius On Nature.
51 Caesar Gallic War.48 Fire destroys the Royal Library at Alexandria.
47 Varro, Librarian of Rome, publishes his 41 volume encyclopaedia. c40 Sallust Jugurthine War. c30 Vitruvius On Architecture. 26 First volume of Livy’s History of Rome published.4 Death of Herod the Great traditionally associated with birth of Christ and ‘Massacre of the Innocents’.
Cities & Social Development118 Narbonne founded, the first Roman colony outside Italy. Becomes the capital of the province of Transalpine (southern) Gaul.87 Athens sacked by Sulla.73-71 Rebellion of the gladiators of Capua led by Spartacus.= Julius Caesar plans the refounding of Carthage and Corinth as Roman colonies: Augustus implements these plans on becoming Emperor.
Other important provincial colonies founded at this time include Lyons, Nimes, Trier and Seville.22 Herod founds Caesarea: begins rebuilding of the Temple of Jerusalem (20).
= Augustan building programme at Rome includes Theatre of Marcellus (13), Altar of Peace (9) and Augustan Forum (2).
= Construction of Temple (Maison Carree) and aqueduc (Pont du Gard) of Nimes.
— Aosta and Turin founded following Augustus’ pacification of the Alps.
Discovery & Invention= Cargo of Rhodian ship wrecked off Antikythera includes cogwheel device for calculating the relative motions of the sun, moon and 5 known planets (recovered 1900-2).
= Opening of trans-Asian ‘silk route’ between China and the West.= Invention of glass-blowing (?in the Levant) leads to glass vessels of all sizes and shapes becoming common articles throughout the Roman world.46 Caesar institutes the Julian calendar based purely on the solar (tropical) year. Uses value of 365.250 days as against true value of 365.242. 36 Mexico: Earliest surviving example of a dating inscription in the ‘Long Count’ style invented by the Olmecs.
= Use of the water wheel general in the Roman world.
= Tower of the Winds, Athens, bearing a wind vane and nine sundials and containing a water-clock: this probably operated an astronomical dial of the type later used in medieval astrolabes.
telling us we are all the same , well we are not,
Bradley hill fort,
Castle Ditch, Delamere
Eddisbury hill fort
Helsby hill fort
Oakmere hill fort
Woodhouses hill fort
The honour of the first great discoveries in Africa does not belong to Britain.
Africa was known from the very earliest recorded times.
Its long northern coast, balancing the south coast of Europe across the narrow basin of the Mediterranean, was a part of classical antiquity, a part even of classical mythology. From the Hesperides— if the islands of Canary were the Hesperides—to that narrow isthmus of sand at Suez which bridges Africa and Asia the ancients knew all that there was to be known. It is even possible that in that remote day Africa was circumnavigated. Stories of the Phoenicians who went down through the Red Sea and returned with the morning sun upon their right hand, are a traditional part of early African speculation. But it was the Portuguese in that strange, intensely romantic period of search and discovery that is the glory of their nation who first doubled the southernmost cape, and found the shape of Africa while they sought a route to India.
BRITAIN’S interest in Africa was originally aroused by Portuguese exiles who had IJ settled in Exeter. In 1588 Queen Elizabeth granted a patent to “certain merchants of Exeter and others of the West parts and of London for a trade to the river Senegal and Gambia in Guinea.” The Company, despite its royal patronage, failed. To reach even Gambia, just round the corner of the first great bulge of Africa, was a perilous and difficult journey in Elizabethan days. James I gave a charter to another company— “ the Company of Adventurers of London trading into Africa ”—and for very nearly three hundred years the history of the merchants of Africa is one first of adventure and only secondly of trade. From George Thompson, who was murdered on his way to Timbuctoo, to Cecil John Rhodes, walking unarmed into the camp of the Matabele, the spirit of trade is illuminated by the flame of adventure.
One of the earliest of voyages into Africa is admirably recorded in the pages of Hakluyt, and it is the more interesting for it illustrates both the manner and the methods of the first contacts that Britain had with the Dark Continent:
“ The first voyage of the right worshipfull and valiant knight Sir John Hawkins, sometimes treasurer of her Majesties navie Royal, made to the W. Indies 1562. Master John Haukins, having made divers voyages to the lies of the Canaries, and there by his good and upright dealing being growen in love and favour with the people, informed himself amongst them by diligent inquisition, of the state of the W. India, whereof hee had received some knowledge by the instructions of his father, but increased the same by the advertisements and reports of that people. And beingThe Oakland Institute said it released its findings after studying land deals in Ethiopia, Tanzania, South Sudan, Sierra Leone, Mali and Mozambique.
It said hedge funds and other speculators had, in 2009 alone, bought or leased nearly 60m hectares of land in Africa - an area the size of France.
"The same financial firms that drove us into a global recession by inflating the real estate bubble through risky financial manoeuvres are now doing the same with the world's food supply," the report said.
It added that some firms obtained land after deals with gullible traditional leaders or corrupt government officials.
"The research exposed investors who said it is easy to make a deal - that they could usually get what they wanted in exchange for giving a poor tribal chief a bottle of Johnnie Walker [whisky]," said Anuradha Mittal, executive director of the Oakland Institute.
"When these investors promise progress and jobs to local chiefs it sounds great, but they don't deliver."
The report said the contracts also gave investors a range of incentives, from unlimited water rights to tax waivers.
"No-one should believe that these investors are there to feed starving Africans.
Forts in Cornwall
Promontory Forts of CornwallThe British nobles in an attempt to prevent the total dissolution of the state and to end the civil war. gathered in an assembly and agreed on a compromise whereby Godnch. the Earl (Duke/King) of Cornwall, would reign as regent and hold the Kingdom of Britain in trust for the English heiress. GokJborough. the daughter of the late Anglican heir, Cymen. and his wife, Adela, the Saxon heiress, only child and daughter of England's first Bretwalda. Aella of Sussex Thus, preserving the fiction of centralized rule which was accepted only because the alternative was unthinkable.
St Agnes Beacon,
St Allen, Ash Bury,
Bury Castle, Bury Down, Lanreath, Blacketon Rings, Bosigran Castle,
Cadson Bury, Caer Bran, Caer Dane, Carn Brea, Castle Dore, Castle an Dinas, St. Columb Major, Castle Killibury Camp (also known as Kelly Rounds), Castle Pencaire (Breage), Chûn Castle, Crane Castle, St Cuby's Church
Dean Point, Demelza Castle, St Dennis Hill Fort, Dingerein Castle, Dodman Point, St Dominick Hillfort, Dunmere fort, Dunterton Hillfort,
Gear fort, Golden Camp, Gurnard's Head,
Hall Rings, Helbury Castle, Hilton Wood Castle,
Kelsey Head, Kenidjack Castle, Kenwyn Hillfort, Kestle Rings,
Ladock Hillfort, Largin Castle, Lescudjack Hill Fort, Lesingey Round, Liveloe,
Nattlebury St Newlyn East, St Newlyn East (Fiddlers Green),
Padderbury, Pencarrow Rounds, Penhargard Castle, Polyphant Hillfort, Prideaux Castle, Prospidnick Hill,
Rame Head, Redcliff Castle, Resugga Castle, Rough Tor, Round Wood, The Rumps,
Stowe's Pound, St Stephens Beacon,
Tregarrick Tor, Trereen Dinas, Tregeare Rounds, Trelaske hillfort, Trencrom Hill, Treryn Dinas, Tresawsen (Perranzabuloe), Trevelque Head, Trewinnion, Trewardreva, Treyarnon fort,
Black Dog,Berry Castle is an earthwork probably dating to the Iron Age close to Black Dog in Devon north of Crediton and west of Tiverton. It does not fit the traditional pattern of an Iron Age Hill fort. Although the earthwork would seem to be an incomplete enclosure, it is not at the top of a hill, although it is on the south east slope of a major hill which peaks at 199 Metres above Sea Level
, Weare Giffard,
Berry Head, Berry camp, Berry's Wood, Blackbury Camp, Blackdown Rings, Bolt Tail, Boringdon Camp, Bremridge Wood, Brent Hill, Brent Tor, Burley Wood, Burridge Fort
Cadbury Castle, Devon, Capton, Castle Close, Castle Dyke, Little Haldon, Castle Head, Devon, Castle Hill, Torrington, Clovelly Dykes, Cotley Castle, Cranbrook Castle, Cranmore Castle, Cunnilear Camp
Denbury Hill, Dewerstone, Dolbury, Dumpdon Hill, Embury Beacon
Halwell Camp, Hawkesdown Hill, Hembury, Hembury Castle, Tythecott, High Peak, Devon, Hillsborough, Devon, Holbury, Holbeton, Holne Chase Castle, Huntsham castle
Kentisbury Down, Killerton, Knowle Hill Castle,
Membury Castle, Milber Down, Mockham Down, Musbury Castle, Myrtlebury
Newberry Castle, Noss, Dartmouth,
Peppercombe Castle, Posbury, Prestonbury castle
Raddon Top, Roborough Castle,
Seaton Down, Shoulsbury castle, Sidbury Castle, Slapton Castle, Smythapark, Stanborough, Stockland Castle, Stoke Hill
Wasteberry Camp, Wind Hill, Windbury Head, Woodbury Castle, Woodbury, Dartmouth, Wooston Castle,
Yarrowbury, Yellowberries Copse
Abbotsbury Castle, Allington, Dorset,
Badbury Rings, Banbury Hill, Bindon Hill
Hambledon Hill, Hod Hill,
Lambert's Castle, Lewesdon Hill,
Maiden Castle, Dorset,
Pilsdon Pen, Poundbury Hill
Bury Hill, Winterbourne,
Camp Hill, Thornbury,
Knole Park Camp
The Castle, Tytherington,
Tog Hill, Cold Ashton,
Mellor hill fort
Ashleys Copse, Balksbury,
Beacon Hill, Bevisbury, Buckland Rings, Bullsdown Camp, Bury Hill,
Caesar's Camp, Castle Hill, Chilworth Ring,
Danebury, Dunwood Camp,
Hamble Common Camp,
Ladle Hill, Lockerley Camp,
Old Winchester Hill, Oliver's Battery, Oram's Arbour,
St. Catherine's Hill,
Tidbury Ring, The Frith, Toothill Fort Tourner Bury,
Whitsbury Castle, Winklebury, Woolbury
Camp Coppice, Castle Frome
Chase Hill, Ross on Wye
Sutton Walls Hill Fort
Breedon hill fort
Bloodgate Hill Iron Age Fort
Stanwick Iron Age Fortifications
Hunsbury Hill or Danes Camp
Old Fawdon Hill
Alfred's Castle (part of Berkshire until 1974),
Badbury Hill (part of Berkshire until 1974), Blewburton Hill (part of Berkshire until 1974),
Chastleton Barrow, Cherbury Camp (part of Berkshire until 1974),
Eynsham Hall Camp,
Lyneham Camp, also called The Roundabout,
Segsbury Camp (part of Berkshire until 1974),
Uffington Castle (part of Berkshire until 1974),
Wittenham Clumps (part of Berkshire until 1974)
Bayston Hill, Bury Ditches,
Caer Caradoc, Caus Castle, Clee Burf
Caer Caradoc (Chapel Lawn)
Titterstone Clee Hill
Backwell Hillfort, Banwell Camp, Bat's Castle, Bathampton Down, Berwick, Black Ball Camp, Blacker's Hill, Brean Down, Brent Knoll, Burgh Walls Camp, Burrington Camp, Burledge Hill, Bury Castle, Somerset,
Cadbury Camp (Tickenham), Cadbury Castle,
Somerset (South Cadbury), Cadbury Hill (Congresbury), Cannington Camp, Castle Neroche, Clatworthy Camp, Cleeve Toot, Compton Dundon, Conygar Hillfort, Cow Castle
Daw's Castle, Dinghurst fort, Dolebury Warren, Dowsborough,
Elworthy Barrows, Elborough Hill
Ham Hill, Somerset, Highbury Hill, Clutton,
Kenwalch's Castle, Kingsdown Camp, *Little Down
Maes Knoll, Maesbury Castle
Small Down Knoll, Stantonbury Camp, Sweetworthy,
Taps Combe Camp, Trendle Ring, Tunley Camp
Wain's Hill, Clevedon, Worlebury Camp[
Carl Wark, Wincobank (hill fort)
Castle Hill Old Fort, Stonnall
The Wall Hillfort
Kinver Edge Hillfort
Caesar's Camp, Rushmoor and Waverley
Caesar's Camp, Wimbledon Common
The Cardinal's Cap, or War Coppice Camp
Castle Old Fort
The Trundle, Chichester
Almondbury, Castle Hill, Huddersfield
Barwick in Elmet
Bincknoll Castle currently unproven, Bratton Camp, Bury Camp,
Castle Ditches, Castle Hill, Casterley Camp, Castle Rings, Chisbury, Chiselbury, Chisenbury Camp, Clearbury Ring, Cley Hill, Codford Circle (also known as Oldbury Camp, Wilsbury Ring, and Woldsbury).
Fosbury Camp, Figsbury Ring,
Liddington Castle, Little Woodbury,
Caer Bladon (modern Malmesbury)
Martinshill Fort, Membury Camp,
Ogbury Camp, Oldbury Castle, Old Sarum, Oliver's Castle,
Park Hill Camp,
Ringsbury Camp, Rybury,
Scratchbury Camp, Sidbury Hill
Whitesheet Castle, Winklebury Camp,