Judging from Avienus's Ora Maritima to which it is considered to have served as a source, the Massaliote Periplus (originally written in the 6th century BC, translated by Avienus at the end of the 4th century), does not use the name Britannia; instead it speaks of nēsos Iernōn kai Albiōnōn "the islands of the Iernians and the Albiones". Likewise, Pytheas (ca. 320 BC), as directly or indirectly quoted in the surviving excerpts of his works in later writers, speaks of Albiōn and Iernē (Britain and Ireland). Pytheas's grasp of the νῆσος Πρεττανική (nēsos Prettanikē, "Prettanic island") is somewhat blurry, and appears to include anything he considers a western island, including Thule.
Pliny the Elder,
"It was itself named Albion, while all the islands about which we shall soon briefly speak were called the Britanniae".
In 930, the English king Æthelstan used the title Rex et primicerius totius Albionis regni ("King and chief of the whole realm of Albion"). His nephew, Edgar the Peaceful, styled himself Totius Albionis imperator augustus "Augustus Emperor of all Albion" in 970.
Brutus! there lies beyond the Gallic bounds
After many adventures, Brutus and his fellow Trojans escape from Gaul and "set sail with a fair wind towards the promised island".
"The island was then called Albion, and inhabited by none but a few giants. Notwithstanding this, the pleasant situation of the places, the plenty of rivers abounding with fish, and the engaging prospect of its woods, made Brutus and his company very desirous to fix their habitation in it." After dividing up the island between themselves "at last Brutus called the island after his own name Britain, and his companions Britons; for by these means he desired to perpetuate the memory of his name" Geoffrey goes on to recount how the last of the giants are defeated, the largest one called Goëmagot is flung over a cliff by Corineus.
Origins of the Belgae
62 Pompey returns to Italy.
telling us we are all the same , well we are not,
Bradley hill fort,
Castle Ditch, Delamere
Eddisbury hill fort
Helsby hill fort
Oakmere hill fort
Woodhouses hill fort
The honour of the first great discoveries in Africa does not belong to Britain.
Africa was known from the very earliest recorded times.
Its long northern coast, balancing the south coast of Europe across the narrow basin of the Mediterranean, was a part of classical antiquity, a part even of classical mythology. From the Hesperides— if the islands of Canary were the Hesperides—to that narrow isthmus of sand at Suez which bridges Africa and Asia the ancients knew all that there was to be known. It is even possible that in that remote day Africa was circumnavigated. Stories of the Phoenicians who went down through the Red Sea and returned with the morning sun upon their right hand, are a traditional part of early African speculation. But it was the Portuguese in that strange, intensely romantic period of search and discovery that is the glory of their nation who first doubled the southernmost cape, and found the shape of Africa while they sought a route to India.
BRITAIN’S interest in Africa was originally aroused by Portuguese exiles who had IJ settled in Exeter. In 1588 Queen Elizabeth granted a patent to “certain merchants of Exeter and others of the West parts and of London for a trade to the river Senegal and Gambia in Guinea.” The Company, despite its royal patronage, failed. To reach even Gambia, just round the corner of the first great bulge of Africa, was a perilous and difficult journey in Elizabethan days. James I gave a charter to another company— “ the Company of Adventurers of London trading into Africa ”—and for very nearly three hundred years the history of the merchants of Africa is one first of adventure and only secondly of trade. From George Thompson, who was murdered on his way to Timbuctoo, to Cecil John Rhodes, walking unarmed into the camp of the Matabele, the spirit of trade is illuminated by the flame of adventure.
One of the earliest of voyages into Africa is admirably recorded in the pages of Hakluyt, and it is the more interesting for it illustrates both the manner and the methods of the first contacts that Britain had with the Dark Continent:
“ The first voyage of the right worshipfull and valiant knight Sir John Hawkins, sometimes treasurer of her Majesties navie Royal, made to the W. Indies 1562. Master John Haukins, having made divers voyages to the lies of the Canaries, and there by his good and upright dealing being growen in love and favour with the people, informed himself amongst them by diligent inquisition, of the state of the W. India, whereof hee had received some knowledge by the instructions of his father, but increased the same by the advertisements and reports of that people. And beingThe Oakland Institute said it released its findings after studying land deals in Ethiopia, Tanzania, South Sudan, Sierra Leone, Mali and Mozambique.
It said hedge funds and other speculators had, in 2009 alone, bought or leased nearly 60m hectares of land in Africa - an area the size of France.
"The same financial firms that drove us into a global recession by inflating the real estate bubble through risky financial manoeuvres are now doing the same with the world's food supply," the report said.
It added that some firms obtained land after deals with gullible traditional leaders or corrupt government officials.
"The research exposed investors who said it is easy to make a deal - that they could usually get what they wanted in exchange for giving a poor tribal chief a bottle of Johnnie Walker [whisky]," said Anuradha Mittal, executive director of the Oakland Institute.
"When these investors promise progress and jobs to local chiefs it sounds great, but they don't deliver."
The report said the contracts also gave investors a range of incentives, from unlimited water rights to tax waivers.
"No-one should believe that these investors are there to feed starving Africans.
Forts in Cornwall
Promontory Forts of CornwallThe British nobles in an attempt to prevent the total dissolution of the state and to end the civil war. gathered in an assembly and agreed on a compromise whereby Godnch. the Earl (Duke/King) of Cornwall, would reign as regent and hold the Kingdom of Britain in trust for the English heiress. GokJborough. the daughter of the late Anglican heir, Cymen. and his wife, Adela, the Saxon heiress, only child and daughter of England's first Bretwalda. Aella of Sussex Thus, preserving the fiction of centralized rule which was accepted only because the alternative was unthinkable.
Allabury, St Agnes Beacon,
St Allen, Ash Bury,
Bury Castle, Bury Down, Lanreath, Blacketon Rings, Bosigran Castle,
Cadson Bury, Caer Bran, Caer Dane, Carn Brea, Castle Dore, Castle an Dinas, St. Columb Major, Castle Killibury Camp (also known as Kelly Rounds), Castle Pencaire (Breage), Chûn Castle, Crane Castle, St Cuby's Church
Dean Point, Demelza Castle, St Dennis Hill Fort, Dingerein Castle, Dodman Point, St Dominick Hillfort, Dunmere fort, Dunterton Hillfort,
Gear fort, Golden Camp, Gurnard's Head,
Hall Rings, Helbury Castle, Hilton Wood Castle,
Kelsey Head, Kenidjack Castle, Kenwyn Hillfort, Kestle Rings,
Ladock Hillfort, Largin Castle, Lescudjack Hill Fort, Lesingey Round, Liveloe,
Nattlebury St Newlyn East, St Newlyn East (Fiddlers Green),
Padderbury, Pencarrow Rounds, Penhargard Castle, Polyphant Hillfort, Prideaux Castle, Prospidnick Hill,
Rame Head, Redcliff Castle, Resugga Castle, Rough Tor, Round Wood, The Rumps,
Stowe's Pound, St Stephens Beacon,
Tregarrick Tor, Trereen Dinas, Tregeare Rounds, Trelaske hillfort, Trencrom Hill, Treryn Dinas, Tresawsen (Perranzabuloe), Trevelque Head, Trewinnion, Trewardreva, Treyarnon fort,
Black Dog,Berry Castle is an earthwork probably dating to the Iron Age close to Black Dog in Devon north of Crediton and west of Tiverton. It does not fit the traditional pattern of an Iron Age Hill fort. Although the earthwork would seem to be an incomplete enclosure, it is not at the top of a hill, although it is on the south east slope of a major hill which peaks at 199 Metres above Sea Level
, Weare Giffard,
Berry Head, Berry camp, Berry's Wood, Blackbury Camp, Blackdown Rings, Bolt Tail, Boringdon Camp, Bremridge Wood, Brent Hill, Brent Tor, Burley Wood, Burridge Fort
Cadbury Castle, Devon, Capton, Castle Close, Castle Dyke, Little Haldon, Castle Head, Devon, Castle Hill, Torrington, Clovelly Dykes, Cotley Castle, Cranbrook Castle, Cranmore Castle, Cunnilear Camp
Denbury Hill, Dewerstone, Dolbury, Dumpdon Hill, Embury Beacon
Halwell Camp, Hawkesdown Hill, Hembury, Hembury Castle, Tythecott, High Peak, Devon, Hillsborough, Devon, Holbury, Holbeton, Holne Chase Castle, Huntsham castle
Kentisbury Down, Killerton, Knowle Hill Castle,
Membury Castle, Milber Down, Mockham Down, Musbury Castle, Myrtlebury
Newberry Castle, Noss, Dartmouth,
Peppercombe Castle, Posbury, Prestonbury castle
Raddon Top, Roborough Castle,
Seaton Down, Shoulsbury castle, Sidbury Castle, Slapton Castle, Smythapark, Stanborough, Stockland Castle, Stoke Hill
Wasteberry Camp, Wind Hill, Windbury Head, Woodbury Castle, Woodbury, Dartmouth, Wooston Castle,
Yarrowbury, Yellowberries Copse
Abbotsbury Castle, Allington, Dorset,
Badbury Rings, Banbury Hill, Bindon Hill
Hambledon Hill, Hod Hill,
Lambert's Castle, Lewesdon Hill,
Maiden Castle, Dorset,
Pilsdon Pen, Poundbury Hill
Gloucestershire Abbey Camp, Bloody Acre, Bury Hill, Winterbourne, Camp Hill, Thornbury, Cleeve Hill, Crickley Hill, Dyrham Camp, Elberton Camp, Horton Camp, Little Sodbury,
Knole Park Camp,
The Castle, Tytherington,
Tog Hill, Cold Ashton,
Ashleys Copse, Balksbury, Beacon Hill, Bevisbury, Buckland Rings, Bullsdown Camp, Bury Hill, Caesar's Camp, Castle Hill, Chilworth Ring, Danebury, Dunwood Camp, Frankenbury Camp, Gorley Hill, Hamble Common Camp, Knoll Camp,
Ladle Hill, Lockerley Camp, Merdon Castle, Norsebury Ring, Old Winchester Hill, Oliver's Battery, Oram's Arbour, Quarley Hill, St. Catherine's Hill, Tidbury Ring, The Frith, Toothill Fort, Bury, Whitsbury Castle, Winklebury, Woolbury
Bincknoll Castle currently unproven, Bratton Camp, Bury Camp,
Castle Ditches, Castle Hill, Casterley Camp, Castle Rings, Chisbury, Chiselbury, Chisenbury Camp, Clearbury Ring, Cley Hill, Codford Circle (also known as Oldbury Camp, Wilsbury Ring, and Woldsbury).
Fosbury Camp, Figsbury Ring,
Liddington Castle, Little Woodbury,
Caer Bladon (modern Malmesbury)
Martinshill Fort, Membury Camp,
Ogbury Camp, Oldbury Castle, Old Sarum, Oliver's Castle,
Park Hill Camp,
Ringsbury Camp, Rybury,
Scratchbury Camp, Sidbury Hill
Whitesheet Castle, Winklebury Camp,