west of

For any strangers to my shores welcome

I can only hope all the new migrants will care for the heritage of England ,Ireland ,Scotland and Wales

all British,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Who is bad and who are ugly, well now things have changed. The good are now bad, the bad are now good and the ugly are the new pretty ,though I wonder why journalists provide morals

 

 

when tony blair apologised for our part in slavery and colonialism I myself feel a sense of anger, being of low class stock , we have nothing to apologise for ,for we are the oppressed not his stock,

we are not the politicians nor the royals of Europe,the working class fight and die for the politicians in westminister

Albion (Ancient Greek: Ἀλβιών) is the oldest known name of the island of Great Britain.

Today, it is still sometimes used poetically to refer to the island. The name for Scotland in the Celtic languages is related to Albion: Alba in Scottish Gaelic, Albain (genitive Alban) in Irish, Nalbin in Manx and Alban in Welsh, Cornish and Breton. These names were later Latinised as Albania and Anglicised as Albany, which were once alternative names for Scotland.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Codex

i's Ptolemy's map of the British Isles, labelled "Ἀλουΐων" (Alouíōn, "Albion") and Ἰουερνία (Iouernía, "Hibernia"). c. 1300.

The Common Brittonic name for the island, Hellenised as Albíōn (Ἀλβίων) and Latinised as Albiōn (genitive Albionis), derives from the Proto-Celtic nasal stem *Albi̯iū (oblique *Albiion-) and survived in Old Irish as Albu (genitive Albann). The name originally referred to Britain as a whole, but was later restricted to Caledonia (giving the modern Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland, Alba). The root *albiio- is also found in Gaulish and Galatian albio- ("world") and Welsh elfydd (elbid, "earth, world, land, country, district"). It may be related to other European and Mediterranean toponyms such as Alpes, Albania and Liban. It has two possible etymologies: either *albho-, a Proto-Indo-European root meaning "white" (perhaps in reference to the white southern shores of the island, though Celtic linguist Xavier Delamarre argued that it originally meant "the world above, the visible world", in opposition to "the world below", i.e., the underworld), or *alb-, Proto-Indo-European for "hill".

 

 

 

Judging from Avienus's Ora Maritima to which it is considered to have served as a source, the Massaliote Periplus (originally written in the 6th century BC, translated by Avienus at the end of the 4th century), does not use the name Britannia; instead it speaks of nēsos Iernōn kai Albiōnōn "the islands of the Iernians and the Albiones".[9] Likewise, Pytheas (ca. 320 BC), as directly or indirectly quoted in the surviving excerpts of his works in later writers, speaks of Albiōn and Iernē (Britain and Ireland). Pytheas's grasp of the νῆσος Πρεττανική (nēsos Prettanikē, "Prettanic island") is somewhat blurry, and appears to include anything he considers a western island, including Thule.

 

 

 

 

In William Blake's mythology, the character Albion represents primeval man.[11][citation needed]

The name Albion was used by Isidore of Charax (1st century BC–1st century AD)[12] and subsequently by many classical writers. By the 1st century AD, the name refers unequivocally to Great Britain. But this "enigmatic name for Britain, revived much later by Romantic poets like William Blake, did not remain popular among Greek writers. It was soon replaced by Πρεττανία (Prettanía) and Βρεττανία (Brettanía "Britain"), Βρεττανός (Brettanós "Briton"), and Βρεττανικός (Brettanikós, meaning the adjective British). From these words the Romans derived the Latin forms Britannia, Britannus, and Britannicus respectively".[13]

 

The Pseudo-Aristotelian text On the Universe (393b) has:

 

 

Ἐν τούτῳ γε μὴν νῆσοι μέγισται τυγχάνουσιν οὖσαι δύο, Βρεττανικαὶ λεγόμεναι, Ἀλβίων καὶ Ἰέρνη

 

 

"There are two very large islands in it, called the British Isles, Albion and Ierne"[14] (Britain and Ireland).

 

Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History (4.16.102) likewise has:

"It was itself named Albion, while all the islands about which we shall soon briefly speak were called the Britanniae".[15][16]

In his 2nd century Geography, Ptolemy uses the name Ἀλουΐων (Alouiōn, "Albion") instead of the Roman name Britannia, possibly following the commentaries of Marinus of Tyre.[17] He calls both Albion and Ierne νῆσοι Βρεττανικαὶ (nēsoi Brettanikai, "British Isles").[18][19]

 

In 930, the English king Æthelstan used the title Rex et primicerius totius Albionis regni ("King and chief of the whole realm of Albion").[20] His nephew, Edgar the Peaceful, styled himself Totius Albionis imperator augustus "Augustus Emperor of all Albion" in 970.[21]

 

The giants of Albion

 

 

 

 

Albina and other daughters of Diodicias (front).

Two giants of Albion are in the background, encountered by a ship carrying Brutus and his men. French Prose Brut, British Library Royal 19 C IX, 1450-1475

A legend exists in various forms that giants were either the original inhabitants, or the founders of the land named Albion.

 

Geoffrey of Monmouth

 

According to the 12th century Historia Regum Britanniae ("The History of The Kings of Britain") by Geoffrey of Monmouth, the exiled Brutus of Troy was told by the goddess Diana;

 

 

 

Brutus! there lies beyond the Gallic bounds

An island which the western sea surrounds,

By giants once possessed, now few remain

To bar thy entrance, or obstruct thy reign.

To reach that happy shore thy sails employ

There fate decrees to raise a second Troy

And found an empire in thy royal line,

Which time shall ne'er destroy, nor bounds confine.

 

— Geoffrey of Monmouth, History of the Kings of Britain/Books 1, 11

 

After many adventures, Brutus and his fellow Trojans escape from Gaul and "set sail with a fair wind towards the promised island".

 

"The island was then called Albion, and inhabited by none but a few giants. Notwithstanding this, the pleasant situation of the places, the plenty of rivers abounding with fish, and the engaging prospect of its woods, made Brutus and his company very desirous to fix their habitation in it." After dividing up the island between themselves "at last Brutus called the island after his own name Britain, and his companions Britons; for by these means he desired to perpetuate the memory of his name".[23] Geoffrey goes on to recount how the last of the giants are defeated, the largest one called Goëmagot is flung over a cliff by Corineus.

 

Anglo-Norman Albina story

 

Later, in the 14th century, a more elaborate tale was developed, claiming that Albina and her sisters founded Albion and procreated there a race of giants.[24] The "Albina story" survives in several forms, including the octosyllabic Anglo-Norman poem "Des grantz geanz" dating to 1300—1334[25][a](Georgine Elizabeth Brereton ed. 1937;[26] Also Jubinal ed., "Des graunz Jaianz ki primes conquistrent Bretaingne" (1842)[27][b]) A prose English translation is given in Richard Barber's anthology (1999).[29] According to the poem, in the 3970th year of the creation of the world,[c] a king of Greece married his thirty daughters into royalty, but the haughty brides colluded to eliminate their husbands so they would be subservient to no one. The youngest would not be party to the crime and divulged the plot, so the other princesses were confined to an unsteerable rudderless ship and set adrift, and after three days reached an uninhabited land later to be known as "England". The eldest daughter Albina (Albine) was the first to set shore and lay claim to the land, naming it after herself. At first, the women gathered acorns and fruits, but once they learned to hunt and obtain meat, it aroused their lecherous desires. As no other humans inhabited the land, they mated with evil spirits called "'incubi", and subsequently with the sons they begot, engendering a race of giants. These giants are evidenced by huge bones which are unearthed. Brutus arrived 260 years after Albina, 1136 before the birth of Christ, but by then there were only 24 giants left, due to inner strife.[29] As with Geoffrey of Monmouth's version, Brutus's band subsequently overtake the land, defeating Gogmagog in the process.

 

Manuscripts and forms[edit]

 

The octosyllabic poem appears as a prologue to 16 out of 26 manuscripts of the Short Version of the Anglo-Norman prose Brut, which derives from Wace. Octosyllabic is not the only form the Anglo-Norman Des Grantz Geanz, there are five forms, the others being: the alexandrine, prose, short verse, and short prose versions.[25][30] The Latin adaptation of the Albina story, De Origine Gigantum, appeared soon later, in the 1330s[31] It has been edited by Carey & Crick (1995),[32] and translated by Ruth Evans (1998).[33]

 

Diocletian's daughter

 

A variant tale occurs in the Middle English prose Brut (Brie ed., The Brut or the Chronicles of England 1906–1908) of the 14th century, an English rendition of the Anglo-Norman Brut deriving from Wace.[d][34][35] In the Prolog of this chronicle, it was King "Dioclician" of "Surrey" (Syria[36]), who had 33 daughters, the eldest being called "Albyne". The princesses are all banished to Albion after plotting to murder their husbands, where they couple with the local demons; their offspring became a race of giants. The chronicle asserts that during the voyage Albyne entrusted the fate of the sisters to "Appolyn," which was the god of their faith. The Syrian king who was her father sounds much like a Roman emperor,[36] though Diocletian (3rd century) would be anachronistic, and Holinshed (Historie of England 1587, Book 1, Chapter 3), explains this as a bungling of the legend of Danaus and his fifty daughters who founded Argos.

England and europe34 CHRONICLES OF PHARMACY xvi

Pearls, writes Jean de Renou (1607), “are greatly cordial and rejoice the heart. The alchemists consequently make a liquor of pearls, which they pretend is a marvellous cure for many maladies. More often than not, however, their pretended liquor is nothing hut smoke, vanity, and quackery. I knew a barber in this city of Paris who was sent for by a patient to apply two leeches, and who had the impudence to demand six crowns of gold for his service. He declared that he had fed those leeches for an entire month on the liquor of pearls.”

,It is on record that Pope Clement VII took 40,000 ducats’ worth of pearls and other precious stones with unicorn’s horn within fourteen days. (See Mrs. Henry Cust’s “ Gentlemen Errant.”)

Emeralds had a great reputation, especially on account of their moral attributes. They were cold in an extra first degree, so cold that they became emblems of chastity, and curious tales of their powers in controlling the passions were told. Moses Maimonides, a famous Jew who lived in Egypt in the twelfth century, in a treatise he wrote by command of the Caliph as a concise guide in cases of venomous bites or poisons generally, declared that emeralds were the supreme cure. They might be laid on the stomach or held in the mouth or 9 grains of the powdered stone might be taken in wine. But recognising that emeralds were not always handy when the need arose, Moses names a number of more ordinary remedies.

Confection of Hyacinth was a noted compound formulated in all the old pharmacopoeias, and regarded as a sovereign cordial, fortifying the heart, the stomach, and 'the brain ; resisting the corruption of the humours and the malignity of the air ; and serving for many oi lier medicinal purposes. The original formula ordered Ih•sides hyacinths (which were probably amethysts), sapphires, emeralds, topazes, and pearls; silk; gold and silver leaves; musk, ambergris, myrrh, and camphor; sealed earth, coral, and a few vegetable drugs ; all made into an electuary with syrup of carnations. A similar compound, but in powder ^form, was known as “ Hungary Powder” and was believed to have been the most esteemed remedy in the Hungary Fever, to which some reference is made in the sketch of Glauber (Vol. I, pp. 260-264). The Emperor Ferdinand’s Plague I’owder was another variation of the same compound. Tliii formula given in Fernery’s Pharmacopoeia orders about twenty vegetable drugs with bole, hartshorn, ivory, and one scruple each of sapphires, hyacinths, emeralds, rubies, and garnets, in a total bulk of about I minces. The dose was from ^ scruple to 2 scruples.

Sir William Bulleyn, a famous physician in the reign of Henry VIII, and said to have been of the same family as the Queen, Anne Boleyn, in his “ Book of Simples,” which was a work of great renown in its day, gives the following recipe for Electuarium de Gemmis. " Take 2 drachms of white perles; two little peeces of nphyre; jacinthe, corneline, emerauldes, granettes, of eiieh an ounce; setwal, the sweate roote doronike, I lie rind of pomecitron, mace, basel seede, of each drachms; redde corall, amber, shaving of ivory, of each 2 drachms; rootes both of white and red behen, ginger, long pepper, spicknard, folium indicum, saffron nmlamon, of each one drachm ; troch diarodon, lignum aloes, of each half a small handful; cinnamon, galinga, /,nruboth, which is a kind of setwal, of each 1|- drachm :

I Inn pieces of gold and sylver, of each half a scruple; iiiii k, half a drachm.” The electuary was to be made

 

Section of the six inches to the mile OS map of Wiltshire, England published in 1901. It shows the location of Vespacians Camp Iron Age hill fort in relation to West Amesbury, Amesbury Abbey and the modern town of Amesbury.

The hillfort stands on the western fringe of Amesbury and borders the River Avon on its southern side, and the A303 on its northern edge. It is inside the boundaries of the Stonehenge World Heritage Site inscribed in 1986. Several other hill-forts are located nearby, including Danebury to the east, Sidbury Hill and Casterley Camp to the north, Yarnbury Castle to the west, and Figsbury Ring and Old Sarum to the south. Ogbury Camp 3 miles (5 km) south may have been a satellite enclosure of Vespasian's Camp. From north to south the hill-fort is 730 m in overall length and 374 m wide at the southern end, narrowing to 100 m wide at the northern end. It encloses an area of some 15 hectares. The bank is up to 40 m wide and up to 6 m high above the ditch bottom. The ditch is up to 10 m wide with a low counterscarp bank up to 18 m wide on the outside of the ditch, creating a maximum overall width of the hill-fort's defences of 68 m.[2]

 

Prehistory of the site

 

The hill on which Vespasian's Camp stands was used during the Neolithic era, as indicated by the Neolithic pits found near the centre. Excavations suggest that the hill may have been part of the Stonehenge ritual landscape during this period.[3] The first building of the hillforts banks is believed to have occurred during the late Bronze Age (between 1100BC-800BC) with some later building in the early Iron Age (700BC-350BC)[citation needed]. There appears to be an entrance on the northern and southern sides. Unlike most regular hillforts of the time, Vespasian's Camp has a somewhat unusual shape, appearing from above as an arrowhead. The southern banks are constructed with angled corners (possibly to take the shape of the hill alongside the Avon into account), which is not a common feature in most round hillforts in the south.

 

Excavations have revealed a metre thick layer of domestic waste that suggests the hill was heavily occupied after the banks were constructed. The absence of significant middle Iron Age finds suggests that the population on the hill had declined by then.[1]

 

It had been assumed that most of the archaeology had been lost during the 18th century landscaping by a Marquess of Queensberry but documentary research showed that the hillfort had escaped most of the landscaping and excavations were begun in 2005. These focused on an area near Vespasian's Camp known as Blick Mead. The first finds discovered tools ranging as far back as the mesolithic. It also revealed that what had been thought to be a water feature was an ancient spring which might have been part of a seasonal lake.[4]

 

Further work in 2010 uncovered a 12 cm layer of mesolithic material including 10,000 pieces of struck flint and over 300 pieces of animal bone, a find described by Professor Tim Darvill as "the most important discovery at Stonehenge in many years.".[citation needed] The struck flint tools were discovered in pristine condition, sharp enough to cut the fingers of some of the excavators, and it is believed that the layer may extend a few hundred metres more. One tool was made out of worked slate, a material not found in the local area. A possible source could be a slate glacial erratic, though there are none known to exist in the vicinity, or the slate could have been carried from the nearest ready source which is in North Wales. If this is the source it shows that thousands of years before Stonehenge this may have been a "special place to gather".[4]

 

Evidence suggests that the spring area was used for huge feasts including the consumption of aurochs and as a centre for tool making. In addition an unusual form of Mesolithic domestic site was found, a semi-permanent site for families called a 'homebase'. Dates for the site show that it was used between 6250 and 4700 BC making it the oldest residential site in this area.[4]xxxii

MOTORING

Palace Eye, on the east side of the Market Place. The Palace (the grounds are usually open to visitors on Wednesdays and Saturdays in summer from 3-4.45 p.m.) is surrounded by an embattled wall, and further protected by a wide moat, well known as the home of some highly intelligent swans.

Glastonbury.

Motor Park.—Market-place, beyond the Museum.

In comparison with Wells, Glastonbury is a place of memories, for the once flourishing Abbey is represented by a few ruined walls (the ruins are open weekdays only), and even those who climb the Tor will find difficulty in visualizing the day when St. Joseph of Arimathea, sent by St. Philip the Apostle, came with a band of missionaries to preach the Gospel in Britain. They sailed up the Bristol Channel until they came in sight of a hill “ most like to Tabor’s holy mount,” for which St. Joseph—so the interesting old story goes—had been instructed in a dream to look.

This hill, which we know as Glastonbury Tor, was an islandlike elevation amid the marshes. As Avalon, it is known in ancient romances and in Tennyson’s Morte D’Arthur.

Close to Glastonbury, on the road to Bridgwater, is Weary- all-Hill, or Wirral, the spot where St. Joseph and his companions, “ weary-all ” with their journey, are said to have landed, having steered their vessel up the river which then flowed at the foot of the slight eminence. Here St. Joseph, we read in the fascinating tradition, planted his pilgrim’s staff, which at once took root, sent forth branches, and made a practice of celebrating every Christmas Day by bursting into flower. It is certain that for many centuries there flourished here a tree famed through Christendom as the Glastonbury Thorn. It was regarded as of such sanctity that sailors carried sprigs from it for luck in their voyages, and dying men desired that some of its leaves should be buried with them. Visitors who make their way to the hill may find the cracked paving-stone marking the place where the tree flourished, and roughly inscribed " I.A.” (Joseph of Arimathea) " Ann. D. xxxi.”

For a full description of the ruins and of Glastonbury, we must refer readers to our Guide to Wells, Glastonbury and Cheddar.Belgae

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Map with the approximate location of pre-Roman Belgic Gaul shortly before Roman conquest according to an interpretation of Caesar.

 

Map of northeastern Gaul around 70 AD.

The Belgae (/ˈbɛldʒiː/ or /ˈbɛlɡaɪ/[1]) were a large confederation[2] of tribes living in northern Gaul, between the English Channel, the west bank of the Rhine, and northern bank of the river Seine, from at least the third century BC. They were discussed in depth by Julius Caesar in his account of his wars in Gaul. Some peoples in Britain were also called Belgae and O'Rahilly equated them with the Fir Bolg in Ireland. The Belgae gave their name to the Roman province of Gallia Belgica and, much later, to the modern country of Belgium.

 

The consensus among linguists is that the ethnic name Belgae comes from the Proto-Celtic root *belg- or *bolg- meaning "to swell (particularly with anger/battle fury/etc.)", cognate with the Dutch adjective gebelgd, "to be very angry" and verbolgen, "being angry", and the Old English verb belgan, "to be angry" (from Proto-Germanic *balgiz), derived ultimately from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhelgh- ("to swell, bulge, billow"). Thus, a Proto-Celtic ethnic name *Bolgī could be interpreted as "The People who Swell (particularly with anger/battle fury)"

Origins of the Belgae

Julius Caesar describes Gaul at the time of his conquests (58–51 BC) as divided into three parts, inhabited by the Aquitani in the southwest, the Gauls of the biggest central part, who in their own language were called Celtae, and the Belgae in the north. Each of these three parts was different in terms of customs, laws, and language. He noted that the Belgae, were "the bravest of the three peoples, being farthest removed from the highly developed civilization of the Roman Province, least often visited by merchants with enervating luxuries for sale, and nearest to the Germans across the Rhine, with whom they are continually at war".[8] Ancient sources such as Caesar are not always clear about the things used to define ethnicity today. While Caesar or his sources described the Belgae as distinctly different from the Gauls, Strabo stated that the differences between the Celts (Gauls) and Belgae, in countenance, language, politics, and way of life was a small one, unlike the difference between the Aquitanians and Celts.[9] The fact that the Belgae were living in Gaul means that in one sense they were Gauls. This may be Caesar's meaning when he says "The Belgae have the same method of attacking a fortress as the rest of the Gauls." [10]

Some translators of Caesar have given crucially different interpretations of his meaning in another passage on the Belgae. W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn (1869) rendered the Latin of Caesar in Bello Gallico, II.4 as "When Caesar inquired ... he received the following information: that the greater part of the Belgae were sprung from the Germans, and that having crossed the Rhine at an early period, they had settled there, on account of the fertility of the country".[11] A more modern translation gives the same section as: "the envoys stated that most of the Belgae were descended from tribes which long ago came across the Rhine from Germany and settled in this part of Gaul on account of its fertility."[12]

So Caesar's use of the word "Germani" needs special consideration. He uses it in two ways. He describes a grouping of tribes within the Belgic alliance as the "Germani", distinguishing them from their neighbours. The most important in his battles were the Eburones.[13] The other way he uses the term is to refer to any tribe considered to be of similar ancestry and traditions, with ancestry east of the Rhine. So the Germani amongst the Belgae were called Germani cisrhenani, to distinguish them from other Germani, such as those living on the east of the Rhine, in the presumed homeland of the Germani. The later historian Tacitus was informed that the name Germania was recent in his day. "The first people to cross the Rhine and oust the Gauls, those now called Tungri, were then called Germani. It was the name of this nation, not a race, that gradually came into general use. And so, to begin with, they were all called Germani after the conquerors because of the terror these inspired, and then, once the name had been devised, they adopted it themselves."[14] In other words, the collective name Germani had first been used by the Gauls or Belgae for the intruders from beyond the Rhine, and was later adopted as a collective name by the Germani themselves.

Language[edit]

Caesar's book The Gallic Wars begins: "All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in ours Gauls, the third. All these differ from each other in language, customs and laws." However, some modern scholars believe that the Belgae were a Celtic-speaking group[15][16][17][18] but that at least part of the Belgae may also have had significant genetic, cultural, and historical connections to peoples east of the Rhine, including Germanic peoples, judging from archaeological, placename, and textual evidence.[19][20] It has also been argued based on placename studies that the older language of the area, though apparently Indo-European, was not Celtic (see Nordwestblock) and that Celtic, though influential amongst the elite, might never have been the main language of the part of the Belgic area north of the Ardennes.[21][22] For example, Maurits Gysseling, suggest that prior to Celtic and Germanic influences the Belgae may have comprised a distinct Indo-European branch, termed Belgian.[22]

On the other hand, most of the Belgic tribal and personal names recorded are identifiably Gaulish, including those of the Germani cisrhenani, and this is indeed also true of the tribes immediately over the Rhine at this time, such as the Tencteri and Usipetes. Surviving inscriptions also indicate that Gaulish was spoken in at least part of Belgic territory.[23]

The Romans were not precise in their ethnography of northern barbarians: by "Germanic", Caesar may simply have meant "originating east of the Rhine" (the homeland of the Germani cisrhenani) with no distinction of language intended. The east of the Rhine was not necessarily inhabited by Germanic speakers at this time. It has been remarked that Germanic language speakers might have been no closer than the river Elbe in the time of Caesar.[24] However, studies of placenames such as those of Maurits Gysseling, have been argued to show evidence of the pre-Roman presence of early Germanic languages throughout the Belgic area north of the Ardennes, where the Germani cisrhenani lived. The sound changes described by "Grimm's law" appear to have affected names with older forms, apparently already in the second century BC. Strong evidence for old Celtic placenames, though, is found in the Ardennes and to the south of them.[21][22] According to Strabo, the country of the Belgae extended along the coast where 15 tribes were living from the Rhenus (Rhine) to the Liger (Loire).[25] Strabo also says that "Augustus Caesar, when dividing the country into four parts, united the Keltae to the Narbonnaise; the Aquitani he preserved the same as Julius Caesar, but added thereto fourteen other nations of those who dwelt between the Garonne and the river Loire, and dividing the rest into two parts, the one extending to the upper districts of the Rhine (Gallia Belgica) he made dependent upon Lugdunum, the other [he assigned] to the Belgae (Gallia Lugdunensis)."[26]

Apart from the Germani, the report of Caesar seems to indicate that more of the Belgae (most of them in fact) had some Germanic ancestry and ethnicity, but this is not necessarily what defines a tribe as Belgic. Edith Wightman proposed that Caesar can be read as treating only the southwestern Belgic tribes, the Suessiones, Viromandui, and Ambiani and perhaps some of their neighbours, as the true ethnic Belgae, as opposed to those in a political and military alliance with them. She reads Caesar as implying a "transition zone" of mixed ethnicity and ancestry for the Menapii, Nervii, and Morini, all living in the northwest of the Belgic region, neighbours to the Germani cisrhenani in the northeast.[24] (Caesar also mentions his allies the Remi being closest to the Celts amongst the Belgae.[27])

It seems that, whatever their Germanic ancestry, at least some of the Belgic tribes spoke a variety of the Celtic Gaulish language as their main language by Caesar's time, and all of them used such languages in at least some contexts.[28] Luc van Durme summarizes competing evidence of Celtic and Germanic influence at the time of Caesar by saying that "one has to accept the rather remarkable conclusion that Caesar must have witnessed a situation opposing Celtic and Germanic in Belgium, in a territory slightly more to the south than the early medieval Romance-Germanic language border", but van Durme accepts that Germanic did not block "Celticisation coming from the south" so "both phenomena were simultaneous and interfering".[29]

The medieval Gesta Treverorum compiled by monks of Trier claims that the Belgae were descendants of Trebeta, an otherwise unattested legendary founder of Trier, the Roman Augusta Treverorum, "Augusta of the Treveri".

 

According to Strabo; the Belgian tribes (in orange) including the Armoricani (in purple)

Tribes of the Belgae[edit]

Caesar names the following as Belgic tribes:

Belgae of "Belgium"

Belgae sometimes described as if not in "Belgium"

Germani Cisrhenani, in northeast, sometimes called Belgae, sometimes contrasted with Belgae

Southeast: Not mentioned as Belgae, but part of Roman Gallia Belgica

-Ambiani

-Atrebates

-Bellovaci

-Suessiones

-Viromandui

Southwest: possibly not in "Belgium":[30]

-Caleti

-Veliocassi

Northwest and considered remote by Romans:

-Menapii

-Morini

-Nervii

South, allies of Rome:

-Remi

-Caerosi

-Condrusi

-Eburones

-Paemani

-Segni

Descendants of the Cimbri, living near Germani Cisrhenani:

-Atuatuci

Possibly Belgae, later within Belgica Prima:

-Treveri

-Leuci

-Mediomatrici

Not Belgae, later in Germania Superior:

-Lingones

-Sequani

-Rauricii

-Helvetii

Later, Tacitus mentioned a tribe called the Tungri living where the Germani cisrhenani had lived, and he also stated that they had once been called the Germani, (although Caesar had claimed to have wiped out the name of the main tribe, the Eburones). Other tribes that may have been included among the Belgae in some contexts were the Leuci, Treveri, and Mediomatrici. Posidonius includes the Armoricani, as well.

Conquest of the Belgae[edit]

Caesar conquered the Belgae, beginning in 57 BC. He writes that the Belgae were conspiring and arming themselves in response to his earlier conquests; to counter this threat, he raised two new legions and ordered his Gallic allies, the Aedui, to invade the territory of the Bellovaci. Wary of the numbers and bravery of the Belgae, he initially avoided a pitched battle, resorting mainly to cavalry skirmishes to probe their strengths and weaknesses. Once he was satisfied his troops were a match for them, he made camp on a low hill protected by a marsh at the front and the river Aisne behind, near Bibrax (between modern Laon and Reims) in the territory of the Remi.

The Belgae attacked over the river, but were repulsed after a fierce battle. Realising they could not dislodge the Romans and aware of the approach of the Aedui into the lands of the Bellovaci, the Belgae decided to disband their combined force and return to their own lands. Caesar's informants advised him that whichever tribe Caesar attacked first, the others would come to their defence. They broke camp shortly before midnight. At daybreak, satisfied the retreat was not a trap, Caesar sent cavalry to harass the rear guard, followed by three legions. Many of the Belgae were killed in battle.

Caesar next marched into the territory of the Suessiones and besieged the town of Noviodunum (Soissons). Seeing the Romans' siege engines, the Suessiones surrendered, whereupon Caesar turned his attention to the Bellovaci, who had retreated into the fortress of Bratuspantium (between modern Amiens and Beauvais). They quickly surrendered, as did the Ambiani.

The Nervii, along with the Atrebates and Viromandui, decided to fight (the Atuatuci had also agreed to join them, but had not yet arrived). They concealed themselves in the forests and attacked the approaching Roman column at the river Sabis (previously thought to be the Sambre, but recently the Selle is thought to be more probable). Their attack was quick and unexpected. The element of surprise briefly left the Romans exposed. Some of the Romans did not have time to take the covers off their shields or to even put on their helmets. However, Caesar grabbed a shield, made his way to the front line, and quickly organised his forces. The two Roman legions guarding the baggage train at the rear finally arrived and helped to turn the tide of the battle. Caesar says the Nervii were almost annihilated in the battle, and is effusive in his tribute to their bravery, calling them "heroes" (for more details see Battle of the Sabis).

The Atuatuci, who were marching to their aid, turned back on hearing of the defeat and retreated to one stronghold, were put under siege, and soon surrendered and handed over their arms. However, the surrender was a ploy, and the Atuatuci, armed with weapons they had hidden, tried to break out during the night. The Romans had the advantage of position and killed 4000. The rest, about 53 thousand, were sold into slavery.

In 53 BC, the Eburones, led by Ambiorix, along with the Nervii, Menapii, and Morini, revolted again and wiped out 15 cohorts, only to be put down by Caesar. The Belgae fought in the uprising of Vercingetorix in 52 BC.

After their final subjugation, Caesar combined the three parts of Gaul, the territory of the Belgae, Celtae, and Aquitani, into a single unwieldy province (Gallia Comata, "long-haired Gaul") that was reorganized by the emperor Augustus into its traditional cultural divisions. The province of Gallia Belgica was bounded on its east by the Rhine and extended all the way from the North Sea to Lake Constance (Lacus Brigantinus), including parts of what is now western Switzerland, with its capital at the city of the Remi (Reims). Under Diocletian, Belgica Prima (capital Augusta Trevirorum, Trier) and Belgica Secunda (capital Reims) formed part of the diocese of Gaul.

Belgae outside Gaul[edit]

Belgae in Britain

 

Belgae and neighbours in Britain

Geography

Capital

Venta Belgarum (Winchester)

Location

Southern England

Rulers

Diviciacus(?)

Britain[edit]

The Belgae had made their way across the English Channel into southern Britain in Caesar's time.[31] Caesar asserts they had first crossed the channel as raiders, only later establishing themselves on the island. The precise extent of their conquests is unknown. After the Roman conquest of Britain, the civitas of the Belgae was bordered to the North by the British Atrebates, who were also a Belgic tribe, and to the east by the Regnenses, who were probably[citation needed] linked to the Belgae as well. The arrival and spread of Aylesford-Swarling pottery across the southeastern corner of Britain has been related to the Belgic invasion since Arthur Evans published his excavation of Aylesford in 1890[32] which was then thought to show "the demonstrable reality of a Belgic invasion", according to Sir Barry Cunliffe, although more recent studies tend to downplay the role of migration in favour of increasing trade links; the question remains unclear.[33]

A large number of coins of the Ambiani dating to the mid-second century BC have been found in southern Britain and the remains of a possible Belgic fort have been unearthed in Kent.[34] Within memory of Caesar's time, a king of the Suessiones (also referred to as Suaeuconi) called Diviciacus was not only the most powerful king of Belgic Gaul, but also ruled territory in Britain. Commius of the Atrebates, Caesar's former ally, fled to Britain after participating in Vercingetorix's rebellion and either joined or established a British branch of his tribe. Based on the development of imagery on coins, by the time of the Roman conquest, some of the tribes of south-eastern Britain likely were ruled by a Belgic nobility and were culturally influenced by them. The later civitas (administrative division) of Roman Britain had towns including Portus Adurni (Portchester), and Clausentum (Southampton). The civitas capital was at Venta Belgarum (Winchester), which was built on top of an Iron Age oppidum (which was itself built on the site of two earlier abandoned hillforts), which remains the Hampshire county town to this day.[35]

Ireland[edit]

T.F. O'Rahilly claims in his invasion model that a branch of the Belgae also settled in Ireland, and were later represented by the historical Iverni (Érainn), Ulaid, and other kindreds. He claims a variety of evidence suggests memories of this were preserved in later Irish tradition, and also makes an elaborate linguistic case.[36] According to his theory, the name of the legendary Fir Bolg (whom O'Rahilly identifies with the Érainn) is the Irish equivalent of Belgae.

See also[edit]

Parisii

Nordwestblock

Frisii

Isogloss

Builg

"Belgic foot" in Foot (unit).

References[edit]

Jump up

^ "Belgae". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014.

Jump up

^ Sage M, Michael. "The Republican Roman Army: A Sourcebook. p134.". 11 January 2013. Routledge. Retrieved 17 January 2015.

Jump up

^ Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie (ZcP). Volume 44, Issue 1, Pages 67–69, ISSN (Online) 1865-889X, ISSN (Print) 0084-5302, //1991

Jump up

^ Koch, John. Celtic Culture: a historical encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO 2006, p. 198.

Jump up

^ Pokorny, Julius. Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959), Bern - Muenchen - Francke, pp. 125-126.

Jump up

^ Maier, Bernhard. Dictionary of Celtic religion and culture, Boydell & Brewer, 1997, p. 272.

Jump up

^ Pokorny, Julius, "The pre-Celtic inhabitants of Ireland", Celtic, DIAS, 1960 (reprint 1983), p. 231.

Jump up

^ Julius Caesar, The Conquest of Gaul, trans. S. A. Handford, revised with a new introduction by Jane F. Gardner (Penguin Books 1982), I.1.

Jump up

^ Geography 4.1

Jump up

^ Caesar, The Conquest of Gaul, trans. S. A. Handford, revised with a new introduction by Jane F. Gardner (Penguin Books 1982), II.1.6.

Jump up

^ [1]

Jump up

^ Caesar, The Conquest of Gaul, trans. S. A. Handford, revised with a new introduction by Jane F. Gardner (Penguin Books 1982), II.4.

Jump up

^ Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 2.4

Jump up

^ Tacitis, Germania, trans. H. Mattingly, revised by J. B. Rives (Penguin Books 2009), 2.

Jump up

^ Koch, John T. 2006. Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia. P.196

Jump up

^ Bell, Andrew Villen. 2000. The role of migration in the history of the Eurasian steppe. P.112

Jump up

^ Swan, Toril, Endre Mørck, Olaf Jansen Westvik. 1994. Language change and language structure: older Germanic languages in a Comparative Perspective. P.294

Jump up

^ Aldhouse-Green, Miranda Jane. 1995. The Celtic World. P.607.

Jump up

^ Kipfer, Barbara Ann. 2007. Encyclopedic dictionary of archaeology. P.63

Jump up

^ King, Anthony. 1990. Roman Gaul and Germany. P.32

^

Jump up to:

a b Lamarcq, Danny; Rogge, Marc (1996), De Taalgrens: Van de oude tot de nieuwe Belgen, Davidsfonds page 44.

^

Jump up to:

a b c M. Gysseling, Enkele Belgische leenwoorden in de toponymie, in Naamkunde 7 (1975), pp. 1-6.

Jump up

^ Inscriptions in Celtic language on instrumentum were discovered in Bavai and in Arras (cf. P-Y. Lambert, La langue gauloise, éditions errance 1994), on the contrary, never an inscription in a Germanic language dating back before the fall of the Roman Empire was excavated.

^

Jump up to:

a b Wightman, Edith Mary (1985), Gallia Belgica, University of California Press page 12-14.

Jump up

^ Strabo, Geographica, Book IV chapter IV, 3

Jump up

^ Hamilton, H.C. (trans.), The Geography of Strabo, Vol. 1, George Bell & Sons, 1892, p. 265.

Jump up

^ II.3

Jump up

^ Koch, J.T. Celtic Culture: A historical encyclopedia (2006) ISBN 1-85109-440-7

Jump up

^ "Genesis and Evolution of the Romance-Germanic Language Border in Europe", Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (Language Contact at the Romance-Germanic Language Border)

Jump up

^ Wightman, Edith Mary, Gallia Belgica, p. 27

Jump up

^ Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 2.4, 5.2

Jump up

^ Archaeologia 52, 1891

Jump up

^ Cunliffe, Barry W., Iron Age Communities in Britain, Fourth Edition: An Account of England, Scotland and Wales from the Seventh Century BC, Until the Roman Conquest, near Figure 1.4, 2012 (4th edition), Routledge, google preview, with no page numbers

Jump up

^ Earthworks discovered at Sharsted Court near Newnham were of possible Belgic origin. See "History of Doddington". The Doddington Village Appraisal (1997). Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2007.

Jump up

^ Sheppard Frere, Britannia: a History of Roman Britain, third edition, Pimlico, 1987; John Creighton, Coins and power in Late Iron Age Britain, Cambridge University Press, 2000

Jump up

^ T. F. O'Rahilly, Early Irish History and Mythology. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. 1946.

There are over 1,350 known hill forts in England and Wales.

 

Given the effects of erosion, some smaller sites have been destroyed and the actual number of hill forts constructed was probably higher, possibly around 1,600. England's hill forts are concentrated in the south and west,

with especially high numbers in the south-western peninsula (Devon and Cornwall have a total of 285 hill forts).

There are also 570 hill forts in Wales,

and some in Scotland.[1] Although some originate in the Bronze Age, the majority of hill forts in Britain were constructed during the Iron Age (about 8th century BC to the Roman conquest of Britain). There was a trend in the 2nd century BC for hill forts to fall out of use.

 

 

· Bristol ·

· Cornwall ·

· Devon · Dorset ·

Gloucestershire ·

Hampshir

e · Herefordshire ·

Hertfordshire ·

Kent ·

· Norfolk · Northamptonshire · Northumberland · · Oxfordshire ·

 

· Somerset ·

 

· Wiltshire ·

 

 

 

66 Pompey finally disposes of Mithradates: campaigns in trans-Caucasia (65); deposes last Seleucid (64) and organises the whole of the eastern Mediterranean into provinces of states subordinate to Rome.

 

62 Pompey returns to Italy.

60 Pompey, Caesar and Crassus form the First Triumvirate.

59-51 Caesar conquers Gaul with side expeditions to Germany (55 and 53) and Britain (55 and 54).

53 Crassus killed by the Parthians at Carrhae.49 Civil war between Caesar and Pompey ends in Pompey’s defeat at Pharsalus (48).

47-44 Dictatorship of Caesar ends with his assassination.

43 Second Triumvirate of Antony (Caesar’s lieutenant), Octavian (Caesar’s heir) and Lepidus (a nonentity): defeats Caesar’s assassins at Philippi (42) and divides empire (40). 40 Herod recognized as King of Judea by the Romans: takes Jerusalem (37).

36 Lepidus dropped.

31 Octavian defeats Antony at Actium: suicide of Antony and Cleopatra (30).

27 Octavian takes the name Augustus.20 Parthians restore the standards captured at Battle o Carrhae in 53.

2 Augustus, who has refused the title of Dictator (but has been running the empire single-handed all the same), accepts the title of Pater Patriae.

= Bantu peoples reach Lake Victoria, Africa.

0Q

Religion & Learning113 Prince Liu Sheng, half brother of Emperor Wu Di, buried at Mancheng, Hebei, in a ‘jade suit’. Made of 2,690 separate jade plates sewn together with gold wire, the suit is an example of a type of burial gear exclusive to the imperial family.= Sima Qian’s Historical Records lays the foundations for Chinese historical writings.70 Cicero makes his

reputation by prosecuting

Verres, retiring Governor of

Sicily, for corruption.

c60 Diodorus begins work on

his World History.

c55 Lucretius On Nature.

51 Caesar Gallic War.48 Fire destroys the Royal Library at Alexandria.

47 Varro, Librarian of Rome, publishes his 41 volume encyclopaedia. c40 Sallust Jugurthine War. c30 Vitruvius On Architecture. 26 First volume of Livy’s History of Rome published.4 Death of Herod the Great traditionally associated with birth of Christ and ‘Massacre of the Innocents’.

iffii

Cities & Social Development118 Narbonne founded, the first Roman colony outside Italy. Becomes the capital of the province of Transalpine (southern) Gaul.87 Athens sacked by Sulla.73-71 Rebellion of the gladiators of Capua led by Spartacus.= Julius Caesar plans the refounding of Carthage and Corinth as Roman colonies: Augustus implements these plans on becoming Emperor.

Other important provincial colonies founded at this time include Lyons, Nimes, Trier and Seville.22 Herod founds Caesarea: begins rebuilding of the Temple of Jerusalem (20).

= Augustan building programme at Rome includes Theatre of Marcellus (13), Altar of Peace (9) and Augustan Forum (2).

= Construction of Temple (Maison Carree) and aqueduc (Pont du Gard) of Nimes.

— Aosta and Turin founded following Augustus’ pacification of the Alps.

©

Discovery & Invention= Cargo of Rhodian ship wrecked off Antikythera includes cogwheel device for calculating the relative motions of the sun, moon and 5 known planets (recovered 1900-2).

= Opening of trans-Asian ‘silk route’ between China and the West.= Invention of glass-blowing (?in the Levant) leads to glass vessels of all sizes and shapes becoming common articles throughout the Roman world.46 Caesar institutes the Julian calendar based purely on the solar (tropical) year. Uses value of 365.250 days as against true value of 365.242. 36 Mexico: Earliest surviving example of a dating inscription in the ‘Long Count’ style invented by the Olmecs.

= Use of the water wheel general in the Roman world.

= Tower of the Winds, Athens, bearing a wind vane and nine sundials and containing a water-clock: this probably operated an astronomical dial of the type later used in medieval astrolabes.

 

 

Bedfordshire

 

Billington Camp[3]

Caesar's Camp, Sandy[3]

Conger Hill[4]

Galley Hill[3]

Maiden Bower

Mowsbury Hill

Sharpenhoe Clappers NHS facing 'mission impossible next year'

By Nick Triggle

Health correspondent

19 March 2017

From the sectionHealth

Share

 

A hospital wardImage copyrightPA

 

NHS services in England are facing a "mission impossible" to meet the standards required by the government, health bosses say.

The warning has been made by NHS Providers, which represents hospital, mental health and ambulance trusts.

It said front-line services simply do not have enough money - and predicts longer waits for hospital operations and more delays in A&E as a result.

But ministers said the NHS has been given the money it needs.

The NHS budget is increasing this Parliament, but not by as much as the health service has traditionally got.

Hunt demands NHS hits target for A&E care

10 charts that show why the NHS is in trouble

 

 

!Waste not want not would be a useful maxim for the labour party and all those who have followed the financial

nonsense preached by Gordon Brown and Tony Blair, the huge lies around the green word is so irritating and now

we have the depression , the equality trade is unequal and far from global, practice what you preach you narrow

minded hypocrits,consumerism leads to huge amounts of rubbish and pollution , quality of life for all not

glutony for all, feminists need retail therapy, women have cupboards full of clothes made by all the poor

people of India and China , outsourcing labour , what a grotesque landscape you have painted , the Nhs of

great Britain highlights the waste and immoral times which Blair is responsible for, the man spoke to the pope

before he went to war, and Jack Straw reckons he is a Christian, lying bastads, they and europe are a bunch of

self serving assholes, everything they have touched is now in disaster, you want the answers then follow richimag.

 

The housing market has been the backbone of the U.k. economy, relying on inflation to cover the fact that nobody

valued agriculture as the mainstay of survival , nobody wanted to include the cost of accomadation in the inflation

figures, all these financial gurus messed up big time and now 28 March 2009 these experts want to tell everybody

they how to fix the mess that they have created, why ?

Fat glutinous bastads in the media love to show us posh nosh on their cookery programs and then they sit in baths

full of baked beans to supposedly help the starving people around the world if they do not understand that that is

obscene then it is about time they were reeducated,this is the world and again the european communists are

telling us we are all the same , well we are not,

 

Berkshire[edit]

Borough Hill,[5] Bussock Camp,[6][7]

Caesar's Camp,[7]

Grimsbury Castle,[7]

Membury Camp[7]

Perborough Castle,[7][8] Walbury Hill[7]

Ramsbury, Berkshire[7]

 

Bristol

Aldebury[9]

Blaise Castle,[9]

Clifton Down Promontory Fort,[9]

Kingsweston HillBrychan Brycheiniog,

King of Brycheiniog

(Born c.AD 419)

(Latin: Brocanus; English: Brecon)

St. Brychan Brycheiniog was the son of King Anlach of Garthmadrun by Marchel, heiress of that kingdom. Perhaps he was a freckled baby as his name implies. Brychan was born in Ireland but, soon afterward, his parents moved Wales, to Y Fenni-Fach, then Marchel's homeland of Garthmadrun. At the age of four, Brychan was sent to be tutored by a holy-man named Drichan beside the River Ysgir. Seven years, Brychan was schooled in the ways of the World, before the poor blind Drichan finally called Brychan to bring him his trusty spear for the last time. With it, he pointed to a nearby boar and a stag who came from the forest to stand with a fish in the river, by a beech-tree dripping with honey; and Drichan predicted a happy and abundant future for the young Brychan.

 

A few years later, war broke out between Anlach and Banadl, the usurping Irish King of Powys. The fight did not go well for Anlach, and he was forced to send Brychan to Powys as a hostage in order to protect his lands. Brychan was treated well at the Irishman's court, but he fell madly in love with his host's daughter, Banhadlwedd. The match was frowned upon and, overcome with lust, Brychan took the poor girl by force. Before Brychan was sent back to Gathmadrun at the end of the War, the Irish Princess bore him a son named Cynog. Brychan gave his child a golden armilla as a sign of his paternal recognition.

 

Back in Garthmadrun, Anlach eventually died and the nobles raised Brychan to the Kingship. From Talgarth, His reign was triumphant, as Drichan had predicted, and the people decided to rename the Kingdom Brycheiniog in his honour. He was a saintly King dedicated to the Christian Church and its teachings. He married three times and had so many saintly children, they are almost impossible to count. The most popular figure is twenty-four sons and twenty-four daughters. Together they are known as one of the "Holy Families of Britain".

 

Depsite his piety, Brychan was not above defending his lands or his family when the need arose. One of his eldest daughters, Gwladys, was once abducted by King Gwynllyw of Gwynllwg. Brychan and his armies pursued them for many days and many nights before a horrendous battle was fought at which many men fell. Luckily, the High-King Arthur intervened and the two Welsh Monarchs were soon reconciled. On another occasion, the King of Dyfed (or Gwynedd) raided Brychan's Kingdom in order to dispel a boast by one of his countrymen, that no spoil could ever be taken from Brychan's land. When the King of Brycheiniog discovered this treachery, he led his armies to a great battle victory, after which the dismembered limbs of the enemy were collected as trophies!

 

In old age he is believed to have abdicated the throne of Brycheniog in order to become a hermit. He was succeeded in Brycheiniog by his eldest son, Rhain Dremudd. Professor Thomas suggests that Brychan's life at this period should be identified with that of his so-called son, St. Nectan. He died at a great age in the mid-5th century and was buried on Ynys Brychan (possibly Lundy Island).

 

 

Buckinghamshire

Aylesbury[10]

Boddington Camp[10]

Bulstrode Park Camp[10]

Cheddington

Cholesbury Camp[10]

Church Hill, West Wycombe[10]

Danesborough Camp[10]

Desborough Castle[10]

Gerrards Cross

Ivinghoe[10]

Keep hill

Kimbles

Maid's Moreton

Medmenham Camp

Medmenham (Danesfield Camp)

Norbury

Pulpit Hill

Seven Ways Plain (Burnham Beeches),

Southend Hill,

States House Hillfort,

Taplow,

West Wycombe Camp,

Whelpley Hill.

 

Cambridgeshire

Belsars Hill,[12] Borough Hill, Sawston,[12]

Stonea Camp,[12]

Wandlebury Hill,[12] War Ditches,

Wardy Hill

 

Cheshire

Beeston Castle,

Bradley hill fort,

Burton Point

Castle Ditch, Delamere

Eddisbury hill fort

Helsby hill fort

Kelsborrow Castle

Maiden Castle

Oakmere hill fort

Woodhouses hill fort

 

Cleveland

Eston Nab

The honour of the first great discoveries in Africa does not belong to Britain.

Africa was known from the very earliest recorded times.

Its long northern coast, balancing the south coast of Europe across the narrow basin of the Mediterranean, was a part of classical antiquity, a part even of classical mythology. From the Hesperides— if the islands of Canary were the Hesperides—to that narrow isthmus of sand at Suez which bridges Africa and Asia the ancients knew all that there was to be known. It is even possible that in that remote day Africa was circumnavigated. Stories of the Phoenicians who went down through the Red Sea and returned with the morning sun upon their right hand, are a traditional part of early African speculation. But it was the Portuguese in that strange, intensely romantic period of search and discovery that is the glory of their nation who first doubled the southernmost cape, and found the shape of Africa while they sought a route to India.

BRITAIN’S interest in Africa was originally aroused by Portuguese exiles who had IJ settled in Exeter. In 1588 Queen Elizabeth granted a patent to “certain merchants of Exeter and others of the West parts and of London for a trade to the river Senegal and Gambia in Guinea.” The Company, despite its royal patronage, failed. To reach even Gambia, just round the corner of the first great bulge of Africa, was a perilous and difficult journey in Elizabethan days. James I gave a charter to another company— “ the Company of Adventurers of London trading into Africa ”—and for very nearly three hundred years the history of the merchants of Africa is one first of adventure and only secondly of trade. From George Thompson, who was murdered on his way to Timbuctoo, to Cecil John Rhodes, walking unarmed into the camp of the Matabele, the spirit of trade is illuminated by the flame of adventure.

One of the earliest of voyages into Africa is admirably recorded in the pages of Hakluyt, and it is the more interesting for it illustrates both the manner and the methods of the first contacts that Britain had with the Dark Continent:

“ The first voyage of the right worshipfull and valiant knight Sir John Hawkins, sometimes treasurer of her Majesties navie Royal, made to the W. Indies 1562. Master John Haukins, having made divers voyages to the lies of the Canaries, and there by his good and upright dealing being growen in love and favour with the people, informed himself amongst them by diligent inquisition, of the state of the W. India, whereof hee had received some knowledge by the instructions of his father, but increased the same by the advertisements and reports of that people. And beingThe Oakland Institute said it released its findings after studying land deals in Ethiopia, Tanzania, South Sudan, Sierra Leone, Mali and Mozambique.

 

'Risky manoeuvre'

 

It said hedge funds and other speculators had, in 2009 alone, bought or leased nearly 60m hectares of land in Africa - an area the size of France.

 

 

 

 

"The same financial firms that drove us into a global recession by inflating the real estate bubble through risky financial manoeuvres are now doing the same with the world's food supply," the report said.

 

It added that some firms obtained land after deals with gullible traditional leaders or corrupt government officials.

 

"The research exposed investors who said it is easy to make a deal - that they could usually get what they wanted in exchange for giving a poor tribal chief a bottle of Johnnie Walker [whisky]," said Anuradha Mittal, executive director of the Oakland Institute.

 

"When these investors promise progress and jobs to local chiefs it sounds great, but they don't deliver."

 

The report said the contracts also gave investors a range of incentives, from unlimited water rights to tax waivers.

 

"No-one should believe that these investors are there to feed starving Africans.

 

Forts in Cornwall

 

Promontory Forts of CornwallThe British nobles in an attempt to prevent the total dissolution of the state and to end the civil war. gathered in an assembly and agreed on a compromise whereby Godnch. the Earl (Duke/King) of Cornwall, would reign as regent and hold the Kingdom of Britain in trust for the English heiress. GokJborough. the daughter of the late Anglican heir, Cymen. and his wife, Adela, the Saxon heiress, only child and daughter of England's first Bretwalda. Aella of Sussex Thus, preserving the fiction of centralized rule which was accepted only because the alternative was unthinkable.

 

552-560

GODRICH of Cornwall. Prince-Regent, Earl (Duke/King) of Cornwall, reigned as regent of Britain in the absence of a national-king dunng the interregnum that followed the murder of the boy-king. Huai, and his mother. Queen Lonle [Lenore; Lunette) There were civil wars throughout Britain dunng hts regency The episode of Havelock "The Dane’ takes place dunng the regency of Earl Godrich.

 

 

. CADROD (CATRAUT) the Arthunan heir, established his headquarters at a castle (site unsure) called "CALCHVYNYDD" (‘hill of chalk or lime"), which name came to be his epithet, somewhere in the British midlands between the Thames and the Trent rivers He fights the Cerdicite heir Cynnc "of Wessex"

 

CYNRIC (CUNORIX). the Cerdicite heir, the other claimant to the British throne, held sway south of the Thames in Wessex with his headquarters at Winchester

One of the surviving ex-tnumvirs, Rrwal of Dumnoma [Devonshire), meanwhile, was expelled from Bntam by Caradoc "Strong-Arm", Count of the Saxon Shore, in another regional-war, and fled to Armonca (Brittany) where he established himself at St. Bneoc. circa 552 Riwal was killed fighting Cynvawr II of Cornwall, circa 555. and his widow married King Cynvawr Pnnce ludwal of Domnonee (son of Riwal, the ex-tnumvir) fled his murderous step-father (Cynvawr II of ComwaH-Brittany) and found refuge at the court of King Childebert I of France (534-558). in 558. Pnnce ludwal of Domnonee retook his throne Cynvawr II withdrew back to Cornwall, area 558. and. circa 560. was murdered along with his wife [name] and son (St Tremeur] St Brieoc is attacked by King Childebert of France, and King Canao II leads the resistance

Meantime, the civil war between the House of Arthur and the House of Cerdic continued to rage Cynnc repulsed Cadrod s offensive at Old Sarum [Salisbury) in 552. and slew him in battle at Barfcury Castle, near Swindon, Wiltshire, in 556 King Erp (Urban) of Gwent was killed in the battle (fighting for the Arthunan heir); and his kingdom was divided in halves, called Gwent and Ergyng Cadrod ’Calchvynydd" was survived by seven sons and three daughters His eldest son. Cyndywyn. was murdered following his father s death in battle Another son. Cyndeym "Wledic*. rallied his father s old supporters and earned on the struggle He slew Cynric in battle in 560 and set himself up as an anti-king although technically the throne was vacant while the country was governed by Godrich. the Earl of Cornwall, who officially reigned as regent of Bntain in the absence of a legitimate ’national" king Cynric was survived by three sons Coelm (Ceawlm), Cutha. and Cwichelm. of whom the eldest Ceawlin (Coelm) succeeded to the Wessex kingdom The name Ceawlin (Coelin) is Celtic, but the names of his brothers, possibly half-brothers, have a Saxon favor to them Their mother may have been a Saxon princess; or perhaps by this time the influence of Saxon culture was beginning to show itself in the Wessex royal house 560-5659. HAVELOK "THE DANE", barbanan-kmg. not usually numbered in the

regnal-lists. however, remembered in tradition, legend, and folklore, reigned for three years as King of Bntain. or England. 560-562 The legend of Havelock "The Dane" begins when he was a boy and tells us that a fisherman was ordered by Denmark's usurper-kmg to murder the true heir to the Danish throne. Havelock, then a youth about age eleven, but instead the fisherman allowed the young pnnce to escape to England Later, when Havelock had come of age. he found employment with an English ealdorman He soon became famous for his prowess at sports, and when this was heard by Eart/Kmg Godrich of Cornwall, the Regent of Britain, he decided to marry-off his ward. Goldborough. the English heiress, to Havelock "The Dane" They were married and Havelock took his new bride with him back to Denmark There, when it was discovered that Havelock was the true heir, the Danish jarls (earls) overthrew the Danish usurper-kmg and invited Havelock to take the throne Havelock then led an invasion of England, defeated and killed Earl Godnch. Regent of Britain, and took the English throne in nght of his wife The civil wars among the Bntons continued throughout his reign. He, soon after obtaining the English throne, however.

Allabury,

 

St Agnes Beacon,

St Allen,[17] Ash Bury,[17]

Bury Castle,[17] Bury Down, Lanreath,[17] Blacketon Rings,[17] Bosigran Castle,[17]

Cadson Bury, Caer Bran, Caer Dane,[17] Carn Brea,[17] Castle Dore, Castle an Dinas, St. Columb Major, Castle Killibury Camp (also known as Kelly Rounds),[17] Castle Pencaire (Breage),[17] Chûn Castle, Crane Castle,[17] St Cuby's Church[16]

Dean Point,[17] Demelza Castle,[17] St Dennis Hill Fort,[16] Dingerein Castle,[17] Dodman Point, St Dominick Hillfort,[17] Dunmere fort,[17] Dunterton Hillfort,[17]

Faughan,[17]

Gear fort,[17] Golden Camp,[17] Gurnard's Head,

Hall Rings,[17] Helbury Castle,[17] Hilton Wood Castle,[17]

Kelsey Head,[16][17] Kenidjack Castle,[17] Kenwyn Hillfort,[17] Kestle Rings,[17]

Ladock Hillfort,[17] Largin Castle,[17] Lescudjack Hill Fort, Lesingey Round,[16] Liveloe,[17]

Maen Castle,[17]

Nattlebury[17] St Newlyn East,[17] St Newlyn East (Fiddlers Green),[17]

Padderbury,[17] Pencarrow Rounds,[17] Penhargard Castle,[17] Polyphant Hillfort,[17] Prideaux Castle, Prospidnick Hill,[17]

Rame Head, Redcliff Castle,[17] Resugga Castle,[17] Rough Tor,[17] Round Wood,[17] The Rumps,

Stowe's Pound,[16] St Stephens Beacon,[17]

Tregarrick Tor,[16] Trereen Dinas,[17] Tregeare Rounds,[16][17] Trelaske hillfort,[17] Trencrom Hill,[16] Treryn Dinas,[17] Tresawsen (Perranzabuloe),[17] Trevelque Head,[16] Trewinnion,[17] Trewardreva,[17] Treyarnon fort,[17]

Warbstow Bury,[16]

Yearle's Wood[17]

 

 

 

 

 

Devon

Beacon Castle,

Belbury Castle,

Berry Castle,

Black Dog,Berry Castle is an earthwork probably dating to the Iron Age close to Black Dog in Devon north of Crediton and west of Tiverton. It does not fit the traditional pattern of an Iron Age Hill fort. Although the earthwork would seem to be an incomplete enclosure, it is not at the top of a hill, although it is on the south east slope of a major hill which peaks at 199 Metres above Sea Level

Berry Castle

, Weare Giffard,

Berry Head, Berry camp, Berry's Wood, Blackbury Camp, Blackdown Rings, Bolt Tail, Boringdon Camp, Bremridge Wood, Brent Hill, Brent Tor, Burley Wood, Burridge Fort

Cadbury Castle, Devon, Capton, Castle Close, Castle Dyke, Little Haldon, Castle Head, Devon, Castle Hill, Torrington, Clovelly Dykes, Cotley Castle, Cranbrook Castle, Cranmore Castle, Cunnilear Camp

Denbury Hill, Dewerstone, Dolbury, Dumpdon Hill, Embury Beacon

Halwell Camp, Hawkesdown Hill, Hembury, Hembury Castle, Tythecott, High Peak, Devon, Hillsborough, Devon, Holbury, Holbeton, Holne Chase Castle, Huntsham castle

Kentisbury Down, Killerton, Knowle Hill Castle,

Lee Wood

Membury Castle, Milber Down, Mockham Down, Musbury Castle, Myrtlebury

Newberry Castle, Noss, Dartmouth,

Peppercombe Castle, Posbury, Prestonbury castle

Raddon Top, Roborough Castle,

Seaton Down, Shoulsbury castle, Sidbury Castle, Slapton Castle, Smythapark, Stanborough, Stockland Castle, Stoke Hill

Voley Castle,

Wasteberry Camp, Wind Hill, Windbury Head, Woodbury Castle, Woodbury, Dartmouth, Wooston Castle,

Yarrowbury, Yellowberries Copse

 

Dorset[edit]

Abbotsbury Castle, Allington, Dorset,

Badbury Rings, Banbury Hill, Bindon Hill

Coney's Castle,

Eggardon Hill,

Flower's Barrow,

Hambledon Hill, Hod Hill,

Lambert's Castle, Lewesdon Hill,

Maiden Castle, Dorset,

Pilsdon Pen, Poundbury Hill

Rawlsbury Camp[21]

 

East Sussex

Hollingbury

Mount Caburn

 

Essex[edit]

Ambresbury Banks

Loughton Camp

 

Gloucestershire[edit]

Abbey Camp,[9]

Bloody Acre,[9]

Bury Hill, Winterbourne,[9]

Camp Hill, Thornbury,[9]

Cleeve Hill,

Crickley Hill,

Dyrham Camp,[9]

Elberton Camp,[9]

Horton Camp[9]

Little Sodbury,[9]

Lydney Park

Knole Park Camp[9]

Solsbury Hill[9]

The Castle, Tytherington,[9]

Tog Hill, Cold Ashton,[9]

Uley Bury

Welshbury Hill

 

Greater Manchester[edit]

Mellor hill fort

 

Hampshire[edit]

Ashleys Copse,[22] Balksbury,[23]

Beacon Hill,[24] Bevisbury,[25] Buckland Rings,[26] Bullsdown Camp,[27] Bury Hill,[28]

Caesar's Camp,[29] Castle Hill,[30] Chilworth Ring,[31]

Danebury,[32] Dunwood Camp,[33]

Frankenbury Camp,[34]

Gorley Hill,[35]

Hamble Common Camp,[36]

Knoll Camp,[37]

Ladle Hill,[38] Lockerley Camp,[39]

Merdon Castle,[40]

Norsebury Ring[41]

Old Winchester Hill,[42] Oliver's Battery,[43] Oram's Arbour,[44]

Quarley Hill,[45]

St. Catherine's Hill,[46]

Tidbury Ring,[47] The Frith,[48] Toothill Fort[49] Tourner Bury,[50]

Whitsbury Castle,[51] Winklebury,[52] Woolbury[53]

 

Herefordshire[edit]

British Camp

Camp Coppice, Castle Frome

Capler Camp

Chase Hill, Ross on Wye

Credenhill

Croft Ambrey

Dinedor Camp

Dinmore Hill

Ivington Camp

Midsummer Hill

Poston Camp

Risbury

Sutton Walls Hill Fort

Uphampton Camp

Wapley Hill

 

Hertfordshire[edit]

Arbury Banks

The Aubreys,

Ravensburgh Castle

Wilbury Hill

 

Kent[edit]

Bigbury Camp

Oldbury hillfort

 

Lancashire[edit]

Castercliff

Warton Crag

 

Leicestershire[edit]

Beacon Hill

Breedon hill fort

Burrough Hill

 

Norfolk[edit]

Bloodgate Hill Iron Age Fort

Warham Camp

 

North Yorkshire[edit]

Stanwick Iron Age Fortifications

Sutton Bank

Ingleborough

Roulston Scar

 

Northamptonshire[edit]

Arbury Hill,

Borough Hill,

Hunsbury Hill or Danes Camp

Rainsborough Camp,

 

Northumberland[edit]

Callaly Castle

Castle Hill

Camp Knowe

Clinch Castle

Ewe Hill

Gibbs Hill

Great Hetha

Greaves Ash

Humbleton Hill

Little Cleugh

Lordenshaws

Old Fawdon Hill

Prendwick Chesters

West Hill

Yeavering Bell

 

Oxfordshire[edit]

Alfred's Castle (part of Berkshire until 1974),

Badbury Hill (part of Berkshire until 1974), Blewburton Hill (part of Berkshire until 1974),

Chastleton Barrow, Cherbury Camp (part of Berkshire until 1974),

Dyke Hills,

Knollbury,

Eynsham Hall Camp,

Hardwell Castle,

Ilbury,

Lyneham Camp, also called The Roundabout,

Madmarston Hill,

Segsbury Camp (part of Berkshire until 1974),

Tadmarton Heath,

Uffington Castle (part of Berkshire until 1974),

Wittenham Clumps (part of Berkshire until 1974)

 

Shropshire[edit]

Abdon Burf[54]

Bayston Hill, Bury Ditches,

Caer Caradoc, Caus Castle, Clee Burf

Caer Caradoc (Chapel Lawn)

Nordy Bank

Old Oswestry,

The Wrekin,

Nordy Bank

Titterstone Clee Hill[55]

Burf Castle

 

Somerset

 

Backwell Hillfort,[9] Banwell Camp,[9] Bat's Castle, Bathampton Down, Berwick,[9] Black Ball Camp, Blacker's Hill, Brean Down, Brent Knoll, Burgh Walls Camp,[9] Burrington Camp,[9] Burledge Hill, Bury Castle, Somerset,

Cadbury Camp (Tickenham), Cadbury Castle,

Somerset (South Cadbury), Cadbury Hill (Congresbury), Cannington Camp, Castle Neroche, Clatworthy Camp, Cleeve Toot, Compton Dundon, Conygar Hillfort,[9] Cow Castle

Daw's Castle, Dinghurst fort,[9] Dolebury Warren, Dowsborough,[9]

Elworthy Barrows, Elborough Hill[9]

Ham Hill, Somerset, Highbury Hill, Clutton,[9]

Kenwalch's Castle, Kingsdown Camp, *Little Down[9]

Maes Knoll, Maesbury Castle

Norton Camp,

Plainsfield Camp,

Ruborough Camp,

Small Down Knoll, Stantonbury Camp,[9] Sweetworthy,

Taps Combe Camp,[9] Trendle Ring, Tunley Camp[9]

Wain's Hill, Clevedon,[9] Worlebury Camp[

 

South Yorkshire[edit]

Carl Wark, Wincobank (hill fort)

 

Staffordshire[edit]

Castle Ring

Castle Hill Old Fort, Stonnall

Bury Bank

Birth Hill

The Wall Hillfort

Bury Ring

Kinver Edge Hillfort

 

Surrey[edit]

Anstiebury Camp

Botany Hill

Caesar's Camp, Rushmoor and Waverley

Caesar's Camp, Wimbledon Common

The Cardinal's Cap, or War Coppice Camp

Hascombe Hill

Holmbury Hill

 

West Midlands[edit]

Castle Old Fort

Wednesbury

Wychbury Ring

 

West Sussex[edit]

Chanctonbury Ring

Cissbury Ring

Highdown

Torberry Hill

The Trundle, Chichester

 

West Yorkshire[edit]

Almondbury, Castle Hill, Huddersfield

Barwick in Elmet

Birstall

 

Wiltshire

Barbury Castle,

Battlesbury Camp,

Bincknoll Castle currently unproven, Bratton Camp, Bury Camp,

Castle Ditches, Castle Hill, Casterley Camp, Castle Rings, Chisbury, Chiselbury, Chisenbury Camp, Clearbury Ring, Cley Hill, Codford Circle (also known as Oldbury Camp, Wilsbury Ring, and Woldsbury).

Ebsbury,

Fosbury Camp, Figsbury Ring,

Grovely castle[56]

Knook Castle

Liddington Castle, Little Woodbury,

Caer Bladon (modern Malmesbury)

Martinshill Fort, Membury Camp,

Ogbury Camp, Oldbury Castle, Old Sarum, Oliver's Castle,

Park Hill Camp,

Ringsbury Camp, Rybury,

Scratchbury Camp, Sidbury Hill

Vespasian's Camp,

Whitesheet Castle, Winklebury Camp,

Yarnbury Castle

 

Worcestershire

Berry Mound

Bredon Hill

British Camp

Wychbury Ring