westof.eu engish

The west of England has been the power behind Great Britain, for thousands of years trading with greeks Palestinians and anyone

 Umbricius is about to depart Roma for Cumae. The narrator says he would himself prefer Prochyta to the Suburra, and he describes the ancient shrine of Egeria being put up for rent to Jews and polluted by marble.

lines 3.21-57 – Umbricius: There is no opportunity in Roma for an honest man.

lines 3.58-125 – Umbricius: The Greeks and their ways are flowing like pollution into Roma, and they are so adept at lying flattery that they are achieving more social advancement than real Romans.

lines 3.126-163 – Umbricius: The dregs of society so long as they are wealthy lord it over real Romans; there is no hope for an honest man in court if he is poor.

lines 3.164-189 – Umbricius: Virtue and lack of pretension is only to be found outside the City; at Roma everything is expensive, pretentious, and bought on credit.

lines 3.190-231 – Umbricius contrasts the perils and degradation of living in Roma with the easy and cheap life outside the City.

lines 3.232-267 – Umbricius: The streets of Roma are annoying and dangerous if you are not rich enough to ride in a litter.

lines 3.268-314 – Umbricius: Travel by night in Roma is fraught with danger from falling tiles, thugs, and robbers


There are over 1,350 known hill forts in England and Wales.


Given the effects of erosion, some smaller sites have been destroyed and the actual number of hill forts constructed was probably higher, possibly around 1,600. England's hill forts are concentrated in the south and west,

with especially high numbers in the south-western peninsula (Devon and Cornwall have a total of 285 hill forts).

There are also 570 hill forts in Wales,

and some in Scotland.[1] Although some originate in the Bronze Age, the majority of hill forts in Britain were constructed during the Iron Age (about 8th century BC to the Roman conquest of Britain). There was a trend in the 2nd century BC for hill forts to fall out of use.


Bedfordshire · Berkshire · Bristol · Buckinghamshire · Cambridgeshire · Cheshire · Cleveland · Cornwall · Cumbria · Derbyshire · Devon · Dorset · East Sussex · Essex · Gloucestershire · Greater Manchester · Hampshire · Herefordshire · Hertfordshire · Kent · Lancashire · Leicestershire · Norfolk · Northamptonshire · Northumberland · North Yorkshire · Nottinghamshire · Oxfordshire · Shropshire · Somerset · South Yorkshire · Staffordshire · Surrey · West Midlands · West Sussex · West Yorkshire · Wiltshire · WorcestershireCAESAR

125-101100-7675-5150-2625-1 BC

Politics & Military History117 Chinese expand to the north west, garrisoning Gansu, the gateway to Central Asia. 115 Teutons and Cimbri leave their homelands in Germany. 112 Rome at war with Jugurtha, King of Numidia. Ill Chinese conquer Kingdom of Nan Yue (south China plus north Vietnam).

108 Chinese conquer North Korea.

106 Jugurtha captured.

105 Teutons and Cimbri defeat the Romans at Orange. 102 Roman General Marius defeats the Teutons at Aquae Sextiae (Aix en Provence): defeats the Cimbri at Vercellae (101).91-89 ‘Social War’ in Italy between Rome and her Italian allies ends with all Italians getting Roman citizenship.

86 Sulla defeats Mithradates VI of Pontus in Anatolia; establishes dictatorship in Rome (82-79).

= Bantu migration of Negro peoples from west Africa into central Africa begins.68 Chinese pull back behind the Great Wall.

66 Pompey finally disposes of Mithradates: campaigns in trans-Caucasia (65); deposes last Seleucid (64) and organises the whole of the eastern Mediterranean into provinces of states subordinate to Rome. 62 Pompey returns to Italy.

60 Pompey, Caesar and Crassus form the First Triumvirate.

59-51 Caesar conquers Gaul with side expeditions to Germany (55 and 53) and Britain (55 and 54).

53 Crassus killed by the Parthians at Carrhae.49 Civil war between Caesar and Pompey ends in Pompey’s defeat at Pharsalus (48).

47-44 Dictatorship of Caesar ends with his assassination.

43 Second Triumvirate of Antony (Caesar’s lieutenant), Octavian (Caesar’s heir) and Lepidus (a nonentity): defeats Caesar’s assassins at Philippi (42) and divides empire (40). 40 Herod recognized as King of Judea by the Romans: takes Jerusalem (37).

36 Lepidus dropped.

31 Octavian defeats Antony at Actium: suicide of Antony and Cleopatra (30).

27 Octavian takes the name Augustus.20 Parthians restore the standards captured at Battle o Carrhae in 53.

2 Augustus, who has refused the title of Dictator (but has been running the empire single-handed all the same), accepts the title of Pater Patriae.

= Bantu peoples reach Lake Victoria, Africa.


Religion & Learning113 Prince Liu Sheng, half brother of Emperor Wu Di, buried at Mancheng, Hebei, in a ‘jade suit’. Made of 2,690 separate jade plates sewn together with gold wire, the suit is an example of a type of burial gear exclusive to the imperial family.= Sima Qian’s Historical Records lays the foundations for Chinese historical writings.70 Cicero makes his

reputation by prosecuting

Verres, retiring Governor of

Sicily, for corruption.

c60 Diodorus begins work on

his World History.

c55 Lucretius On Nature.

51 Caesar Gallic War.48 Fire destroys the Royal Library at Alexandria.

47 Varro, Librarian of Rome, publishes his 41 volume encyclopaedia. c40 Sallust Jugurthine War. c30 Vitruvius On Architecture. 26 First volume of Livy’s History of Rome published.4 Death of Herod the Great traditionally associated with birth of Christ and ‘Massacre of the Innocents’.


Cities & Social Development118 Narbonne founded, the first Roman colony outside Italy. Becomes the capital of the province of Transalpine (southern) Gaul.87 Athens sacked by Sulla.73-71 Rebellion of the gladiators of Capua led by Spartacus.= Julius Caesar plans the refounding of Carthage and Corinth as Roman colonies: Augustus implements these plans on becoming Emperor.

Other important provincial colonies founded at this time include Lyons, Nimes, Trier and Seville.22 Herod founds Caesarea: begins rebuilding of the Temple of Jerusalem (20).

= Augustan building programme at Rome includes Theatre of Marcellus (13), Altar of Peace (9) and Augustan Forum (2).

= Construction of Temple (Maison Carree) and aqueduc (Pont du Gard) of Nimes.

— Aosta and Turin founded following Augustus’ pacification of the Alps.


Discovery & Invention= Cargo of Rhodian ship wrecked off Antikythera includes cogwheel device for calculating the relative motions of the sun, moon and 5 known planets (recovered 1900-2).

= Opening of trans-Asian ‘silk route’ between China and the West.= Invention of glass-blowing (?in the Levant) leads to glass vessels of all sizes and shapes becoming common articles throughout the Roman world.46 Caesar institutes the Julian calendar based purely on the solar (tropical) year. Uses value of 365.250 days as against true value of 365.242. 36 Mexico: Earliest surviving example of a dating inscription in the ‘Long Count’ style invented by the Olmecs.

= Use of the water wheel general in the Roman world.

= Tower of the Winds, Athens, bearing a wind vane and nine sundials and containing a water-clock: this probably operated an astronomical dial of the type later used in medieval astrolabes.





Billington Camp[3]

Caesar's Camp, Sandy[3]

Conger Hill[4]

Galley Hill[3]

Maiden Bower

Mowsbury Hill

Sharpenhoe Clappers



Borough Hill,[5] Bussock Camp,[6][7]

Caesar's Camp,[7]

Grimsbury Castle,[7]

Membury Camp[7]

Perborough Castle,[7][8] Walbury Hill[7]

Ramsbury, Berkshire[7]




Blaise Castle,[9]

Clifton Down Promontory Fort,[9]

Kingsweston Hill




Boddington Camp[10]

Bulstrode Park Camp[10]


Cholesbury Camp[10]

Church Hill, West Wycombe[10]

Danesborough Camp[10]

Desborough Castle[10]

Gerrards Cross


Keep hill


Maid's Moreton

Medmenham Camp

Medmenham (Danesfield Camp)


Pulpit Hill

Seven Ways Plain (Burnham Beeches),

Southend Hill,

States House Hillfort,


West Wycombe Camp,

Whelpley Hill.



Belsars Hill,[12] Borough Hill, Sawston,[12]

Stonea Camp,[12]

Wandlebury Hill,[12] War Ditches,

Wardy Hill



Beeston Castle,

Bradley hill fort,

Burton Point

Castle Ditch, Delamere

Eddisbury hill fort

Helsby hill fort

Kelsborrow Castle

Maiden Castle

Oakmere hill fort

Woodhouses hill fort



Eston Nab


Forts in Cornwall


Promontory Forts of Cornwall



St Agnes Beacon,

St Allen,[17] Ash Bury,[17]

Bury Castle,[17] Bury Down, Lanreath,[17] Blacketon Rings,[17] Bosigran Castle,[17]

Cadson Bury, Caer Bran, Caer Dane,[17] Carn Brea,[17] Castle Dore, Castle an Dinas, St. Columb Major, Castle Killibury Camp (also known as Kelly Rounds),[17] Castle Pencaire (Breage),[17] Chûn Castle, Crane Castle,[17] St Cuby's Church[16]

Dean Point,[17] Demelza Castle,[17] St Dennis Hill Fort,[16] Dingerein Castle,[17] Dodman Point, St Dominick Hillfort,[17] Dunmere fort,[17] Dunterton Hillfort,[17]


Gear fort,[17] Golden Camp,[17] Gurnard's Head,

Hall Rings,[17] Helbury Castle,[17] Hilton Wood Castle,[17]

Kelsey Head,[16][17] Kenidjack Castle,[17] Kenwyn Hillfort,[17] Kestle Rings,[17]

Ladock Hillfort,[17] Largin Castle,[17] Lescudjack Hill Fort, Lesingey Round,[16] Liveloe,[17]

Maen Castle,[17]

Nattlebury[17] St Newlyn East,[17] St Newlyn East (Fiddlers Green),[17]

Padderbury,[17] Pencarrow Rounds,[17] Penhargard Castle,[17] Polyphant Hillfort,[17] Prideaux Castle, Prospidnick Hill,[17]

Rame Head, Redcliff Castle,[17] Resugga Castle,[17] Rough Tor,[17] Round Wood,[17] The Rumps,

Stowe's Pound,[16] St Stephens Beacon,[17]

Tregarrick Tor,[16] Trereen Dinas,[17] Tregeare Rounds,[16][17] Trelaske hillfort,[17] Trencrom Hill,[16] Treryn Dinas,[17] Tresawsen (Perranzabuloe),[17] Trevelque Head,[16] Trewinnion,[17] Trewardreva,[17] Treyarnon fort,[17]

Warbstow Bury,[16]

Yearle's Wood[17]







Beacon Castle,

Belbury Castle,

Berry Castle,

Black Dog,Berry Castle is an earthwork probably dating to the Iron Age close to Black Dog in Devon north of Crediton and west of Tiverton. It does not fit the traditional pattern of an Iron Age Hill fort. Although the earthwork would seem to be an incomplete enclosure, it is not at the top of a hill, although it is on the south east slope of a major hill which peaks at 199 Metres above Sea Level

Berry Castle

, Weare Giffard,

Berry Head, Berry camp, Berry's Wood, Blackbury Camp, Blackdown Rings, Bolt Tail, Boringdon Camp, Bremridge Wood, Brent Hill, Brent Tor, Burley Wood, Burridge Fort

Cadbury Castle, Devon, Capton, Castle Close, Castle Dyke, Little Haldon, Castle Head, Devon, Castle Hill, Torrington, Clovelly Dykes, Cotley Castle, Cranbrook Castle, Cranmore Castle, Cunnilear Camp

Denbury Hill, Dewerstone, Dolbury, Dumpdon Hill, Embury Beacon

Halwell Camp, Hawkesdown Hill, Hembury, Hembury Castle, Tythecott, High Peak, Devon, Hillsborough, Devon, Holbury, Holbeton, Holne Chase Castle, Huntsham castle

Kentisbury Down, Killerton, Knowle Hill Castle,

Lee Wood

Membury Castle, Milber Down, Mockham Down, Musbury Castle, Myrtlebury

Newberry Castle, Noss, Dartmouth,

Peppercombe Castle, Posbury, Prestonbury castle

Raddon Top, Roborough Castle,

Seaton Down, Shoulsbury castle, Sidbury Castle, Slapton Castle, Smythapark, Stanborough, Stockland Castle, Stoke Hill

Voley Castle,

Wasteberry Camp, Wind Hill, Windbury Head, Woodbury Castle, Woodbury, Dartmouth, Wooston Castle,

Yarrowbury, Yellowberries Copse



Abbotsbury Castle, Allington, Dorset,

Badbury Rings, Banbury Hill, Bindon Hill

Coney's Castle,

Eggardon Hill,

Flower's Barrow,

Hambledon Hill, Hod Hill,

Lambert's Castle, Lewesdon Hill,

Maiden Castle, Dorset,

Pilsdon Pen, Poundbury Hill

Rawlsbury Camp[21]


East Sussex


Mount Caburn



Ambresbury Banks

Loughton Camp



Abbey Camp,[9]

Bloody Acre,[9]

Bury Hill, Winterbourne,[9]

Camp Hill, Thornbury,[9]

Cleeve Hill,

Crickley Hill,

Dyrham Camp,[9]

Elberton Camp,[9]

Horton Camp[9]

Little Sodbury,[9]

Lydney Park

Knole Park Camp[9]

Solsbury Hill[9]

The Castle, Tytherington,[9]

Tog Hill, Cold Ashton,[9]

Uley Bury

Welshbury Hill


Greater Manchester[edit]

Mellor hill fort



Ashleys Copse,[22] Balksbury,[23]

Beacon Hill,[24] Bevisbury,[25] Buckland Rings,[26] Bullsdown Camp,[27] Bury Hill,[28]

Caesar's Camp,[29] Castle Hill,[30] Chilworth Ring,[31]

Danebury,[32] Dunwood Camp,[33]

Frankenbury Camp,[34]

Gorley Hill,[35]

Hamble Common Camp,[36]

Knoll Camp,[37]

Ladle Hill,[38] Lockerley Camp,[39]

Merdon Castle,[40]

Norsebury Ring[41]

Old Winchester Hill,[42] Oliver's Battery,[43] Oram's Arbour,[44]

Quarley Hill,[45]

St. Catherine's Hill,[46]

Tidbury Ring,[47] The Frith,[48] Toothill Fort[49] Tourner Bury,[50]

Whitsbury Castle,[51] Winklebury,[52] Woolbury[53]



British Camp

Camp Coppice, Castle Frome

Capler Camp

Chase Hill, Ross on Wye


Croft Ambrey

Dinedor Camp

Dinmore Hill

Ivington Camp

Midsummer Hill

Poston Camp


Sutton Walls Hill Fort

Uphampton Camp

Wapley Hill



Arbury Banks

The Aubreys,

Ravensburgh Castle

Wilbury Hill



Bigbury Camp

Oldbury hillfort




Warton Crag



Beacon Hill

Breedon hill fort

Burrough Hill



Bloodgate Hill Iron Age Fort

Warham Camp


North Yorkshire[edit]

Stanwick Iron Age Fortifications

Sutton Bank


Roulston Scar



Arbury Hill,

Borough Hill,

Hunsbury Hill or Danes Camp

Rainsborough Camp,



Callaly Castle

Castle Hill

Camp Knowe

Clinch Castle

Ewe Hill

Gibbs Hill

Great Hetha

Greaves Ash

Humbleton Hill

Little Cleugh


Old Fawdon Hill

Prendwick Chesters

West Hill

Yeavering Bell



Alfred's Castle (part of Berkshire until 1974),

Badbury Hill (part of Berkshire until 1974), Blewburton Hill (part of Berkshire until 1974),

Chastleton Barrow, Cherbury Camp (part of Berkshire until 1974),

Dyke Hills,


Eynsham Hall Camp,

Hardwell Castle,


Lyneham Camp, also called The Roundabout,

Madmarston Hill,

Segsbury Camp (part of Berkshire until 1974),

Tadmarton Heath,

Uffington Castle (part of Berkshire until 1974),

Wittenham Clumps (part of Berkshire until 1974)



Abdon Burf[54]

Bayston Hill, Bury Ditches,

Caer Caradoc, Caus Castle, Clee Burf

Caer Caradoc (Chapel Lawn)

Nordy Bank

Old Oswestry,

The Wrekin,

Nordy Bank

Titterstone Clee Hill[55]

Burf Castle




Backwell Hillfort,[9] Banwell Camp,[9] Bat's Castle, Bathampton Down, Berwick,[9] Black Ball Camp, Blacker's Hill, Brean Down, Brent Knoll, Burgh Walls Camp,[9] Burrington Camp,[9] Burledge Hill, Bury Castle, Somerset,

Cadbury Camp (Tickenham), Cadbury Castle,

Somerset (South Cadbury), Cadbury Hill (Congresbury), Cannington Camp, Castle Neroche, Clatworthy Camp, Cleeve Toot, Compton Dundon, Conygar Hillfort,[9] Cow Castle

Daw's Castle, Dinghurst fort,[9] Dolebury Warren, Dowsborough,[9]

Elworthy Barrows, Elborough Hill[9]

Ham Hill, Somerset, Highbury Hill, Clutton,[9]

Kenwalch's Castle, Kingsdown Camp, *Little Down[9]

Maes Knoll, Maesbury Castle

Norton Camp,

Plainsfield Camp,

Ruborough Camp,

Small Down Knoll, Stantonbury Camp,[9] Sweetworthy,

Taps Combe Camp,[9] Trendle Ring, Tunley Camp[9]

Wain's Hill, Clevedon,[9] Worlebury Camp[


South Yorkshire[edit]

Carl Wark, Wincobank (hill fort)



Castle Ring

Castle Hill Old Fort, Stonnall

Bury Bank

Birth Hill

The Wall Hillfort

Bury Ring

Kinver Edge Hillfort



Anstiebury Camp

Botany Hill

Caesar's Camp, Rushmoor and Waverley

Caesar's Camp, Wimbledon Common

The Cardinal's Cap, or War Coppice Camp

Hascombe Hill

Holmbury Hill


West Midlands[edit]

Castle Old Fort


Wychbury Ring


West Sussex[edit]

Chanctonbury Ring

Cissbury Ring


Torberry Hill

The Trundle, Chichester


West Yorkshire[edit]

Almondbury, Castle Hill, Huddersfield

Barwick in Elmet




Barbury Castle,

Battlesbury Camp,

Bincknoll Castle currently unproven, Bratton Camp, Bury Camp,

Castle Ditches, Castle Hill, Casterley Camp, Castle Rings, Chisbury, Chiselbury, Chisenbury Camp, Clearbury Ring, Cley Hill, Codford Circle (also known as Oldbury Camp, Wilsbury Ring, and Woldsbury).


Fosbury Camp, Figsbury Ring,

Grovely castle[56]

Knook Castle

Liddington Castle, Little Woodbury,

Caer Bladon (modern Malmesbury)

Martinshill Fort, Membury Camp,

Ogbury Camp, Oldbury Castle, Old Sarum, Oliver's Castle,

Park Hill Camp,

Ringsbury Camp, Rybury,

Scratchbury Camp, Sidbury Hill

Vespasian's Camp,

Whitesheet Castle, Winklebury Camp,

Yarnbury Castle



Berry Mound

Bredon Hill

British Camp

Wychbury Ring