Today, it is still sometimes used poetically to refer to the island. The name for Scotland in the Celtic languages is related to Albion: Alba in Scottish Gaelic, Albain (genitive Alban) in Irish, Nalbin in Manx and Alban in Welsh, Cornish and Breton. These names were later Latinised as Albania and Anglicised as Albany, which were once alternative names for Scotland.
The Common Brittonic name for the island, Hellenised as Albíōn (Ἀλβίων) and Latinised as Albiōn (genitive Albionis), derives from the Proto-Celtic nasal stem *Albi̯iū (oblique *Albiion-) and survived in Old Irish as Albu (genitive Albann). The name originally referred to Britain as a whole, but was later restricted to Caledonia (giving the modern Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland, Alba). The root *albiio- is also found in Gaulish and Galatian albio- ("world") and Welsh elfydd (elbid, "earth, world, land, country, district"). It may be related to other European and Mediterranean toponyms such as Alpes, Albania and Liban. It has two possible etymologies: either *albho-, a Proto-Indo-European root meaning "white" (perhaps in reference to the white southern shores of the island, though Celtic linguist Xavier Delamarre argued that it originally meant "the world above, the visible world", in opposition to "the world below", i.e., the underworld), or *alb-, Proto-Indo-European for "hill".
Judging from Avienus's Ora Maritima to which it is considered to have served as a source, the Massaliote Periplus (originally written in the 6th century BC, translated by Avienus at the end of the 4th century), does not use the name Britannia; instead it speaks of nēsos Iernōn kai Albiōnōn "the islands of the Iernians and the Albiones". Likewise, Pytheas (ca. 320 BC), as directly or indirectly quoted in the surviving excerpts of his works in later writers, speaks of Albiōn and Iernē (Britain and Ireland). Pytheas's grasp of the νῆσος Πρεττανική (nēsos Prettanikē, "Prettanic island") is somewhat blurry, and appears to include anything he considers a western island, including Thule.
In William Blake's mythology, the character Albion represents primeval man.
The name Albion was used by Isidore of Charax (1st century BC–1st century AD) and subsequently by many classical writers. By the 1st century AD, the name refers unequivocally to Great Britain. But this "enigmatic name for Britain, revived much later by Romantic poets like William Blake, did not remain popular among Greek writers. It was soon replaced by Πρεττανία (Prettanía) and Βρεττανία (Brettanía "Britain"), Βρεττανός (Brettanós "Briton"), and Βρεττανικός (Brettanikós, meaning the adjective British). From these words the Romans derived the Latin forms Britannia, Britannus, and Britannicus respectively".
The Pseudo-Aristotelian text On the Universe (393b) has:
Ἐν τούτῳ γε μὴν νῆσοι μέγισται τυγχάνουσιν οὖσαι δύο, Βρεττανικαὶ λεγόμεναι, Ἀλβίων καὶ Ἰέρνη
"There are two very large islands in it, called the British Isles, Albion and Ierne" (Britain and Ireland).
Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History (4.16.102) likewise has:
"It was itself named Albion, while all the islands about which we shall soon briefly speak were called the Britanniae".
In his 2nd century Geography, Ptolemy uses the name Ἀλουΐων (Alouiōn, "Albion") instead of the Roman name Britannia, possibly following the commentaries of Marinus of Tyre. He calls both Albion and Ierne νῆσοι Βρεττανικαὶ (nēsoi Brettanikai, "British Isles").
In 930, the English king Æthelstan used the title Rex et primicerius totius Albionis regni ("King and chief of the whole realm of Albion"). His nephew, Edgar the Peaceful, styled himself Totius Albionis imperator augustus "Augustus Emperor of all Albion" in 970.
Albina and other daughters of Diodicias (front).
Two giants of Albion are in the background, encountered by a ship carrying Brutus and his men. French Prose Brut, British Library Royal 19 C IX, 1450-1475
A legend exists in various forms that giants were either the original inhabitants, or the founders of the land named Albion.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
According to the 12th century Historia Regum Britanniae ("The History of The Kings of Britain") by Geoffrey of Monmouth, the exiled Brutus of Troy was told by the goddess Diana;
— Geoffrey of Monmouth, History of the Kings of Britain/Books 1, 11
After many adventures, Brutus and his fellow Trojans escape from Gaul and "set sail with a fair wind towards the promised island".
"The island was then called Albion, and inhabited by none but a few giants. Notwithstanding this, the pleasant situation of the places, the plenty of rivers abounding with fish, and the engaging prospect of its woods, made Brutus and his company very desirous to fix their habitation in it." After dividing up the island between themselves "at last Brutus called the island after his own name Britain, and his companions Britons; for by these means he desired to perpetuate the memory of his name". Geoffrey goes on to recount how the last of the giants are defeated, the largest one called Goëmagot is flung over a cliff by Corineus.
Anglo-Norman Albina story
Later, in the 14th century, a more elaborate tale was developed, claiming that Albina and her sisters founded Albion and procreated there a race of giants. The "Albina story" survives in several forms, including the octosyllabic Anglo-Norman poem "Des grantz geanz" dating to 1300—1334[a](Georgine Elizabeth Brereton ed. 1937; Also Jubinal ed., "Des graunz Jaianz ki primes conquistrent Bretaingne" (1842)[b]) A prose English translation is given in Richard Barber's anthology (1999). According to the poem, in the 3970th year of the creation of the world,[c] a king of Greece married his thirty daughters into royalty, but the haughty brides colluded to eliminate their husbands so they would be subservient to no one. The youngest would not be party to the crime and divulged the plot, so the other princesses were confined to an unsteerable rudderless ship and set adrift, and after three days reached an uninhabited land later to be known as "England". The eldest daughter Albina (Albine) was the first to set shore and lay claim to the land, naming it after herself. At first, the women gathered acorns and fruits, but once they learned to hunt and obtain meat, it aroused their lecherous desires. As no other humans inhabited the land, they mated with evil spirits called "'incubi", and subsequently with the sons they begot, engendering a race of giants. These giants are evidenced by huge bones which are unearthed. Brutus arrived 260 years after Albina, 1136 before the birth of Christ, but by then there were only 24 giants left, due to inner strife. As with Geoffrey of Monmouth's version, Brutus's band subsequently overtake the land, defeating Gogmagog in the process.
Manuscripts and forms
The octosyllabic poem appears as a prologue to 16 out of 26 manuscripts of the Short Version of the Anglo-Norman prose Brut, which derives from Wace. Octosyllabic is not the only form the Anglo-Norman Des Grantz Geanz, there are five forms, the others being: the alexandrine, prose, short verse, and short prose versions. The Latin adaptation of the Albina story, De Origine Gigantum, appeared soon later, in the 1330s It has been edited by Carey & Crick (1995), and translated by Ruth Evans (1998).
A variant tale occurs in the Middle English prose Brut (Brie ed., The Brut or the Chronicles of England 1906–1908) of the 14th century, an English rendition of the Anglo-Norman Brut deriving from Wace.[d] In the Prolog of this chronicle, it was King "Dioclician" of "Surrey" (Syria), who had 33 daughters, the eldest being called "Albyne". The princesses are all banished to Albion after plotting to murder their husbands, where they couple with the local demons; their offspring became a race of giants. The chronicle asserts that during the voyage Albyne entrusted the fate of the sisters to "Appolyn," which was the god of their faith. The Syrian king who was her father sounds much like a Roman emperor, though Diocletian (3rd century) would be anachronistic, and Holinshed (Historie of England 1587, Book 1, Chapter 3), explains this as a bungling of the legend of Danaus and his fifty daughters who founded Argos.
England and europe34 CHRONICLES OF PHARMACY xvi
Pearls, writes Jean de Renou (1607), “are greatly cordial and rejoice the heart. The alchemists consequently make a liquor of pearls, which they pretend is a marvellous cure for many maladies. More often than not, however, their pretended liquor is nothing hut smoke, vanity, and quackery. I knew a barber in this city of Paris who was sent for by a patient to apply two leeches, and who had the impudence to demand six crowns of gold for his service. He declared that he had fed those leeches for an entire month on the liquor of pearls.”
,It is on record that Pope Clement VII took 40,000 ducats’ worth of pearls and other precious stones with unicorn’s horn within fourteen days. (See Mrs. Henry Cust’s “ Gentlemen Errant.”)
Emeralds had a great reputation, especially on account of their moral attributes. They were cold in an extra first degree, so cold that they became emblems of chastity, and curious tales of their powers in controlling the passions were told. Moses Maimonides, a famous Jew who lived in Egypt in the twelfth century, in a treatise he wrote by command of the Caliph as a concise guide in cases of venomous bites or poisons generally, declared that emeralds were the supreme cure. They might be laid on the stomach or held in the mouth or 9 grains of the powdered stone might be taken in wine. But recognising that emeralds were not always handy when the need arose, Moses names a number of more ordinary remedies.
Confection of Hyacinth was a noted compound formulated in all the old pharmacopoeias, and regarded as a sovereign cordial, fortifying the heart, the stomach, and 'the brain ; resisting the corruption of the humours and the malignity of the air ; and serving for many oi lier medicinal purposes. The original formula ordered Ih•sides hyacinths (which were probably amethysts), sapphires, emeralds, topazes, and pearls; silk; gold and silver leaves; musk, ambergris, myrrh, and camphor; sealed earth, coral, and a few vegetable drugs ; all made into an electuary with syrup of carnations. A similar compound, but in powder ^form, was known as “ Hungary Powder” and was believed to have been the most esteemed remedy in the Hungary Fever, to which some reference is made in the sketch of Glauber (Vol. I, pp. 260-264). The Emperor Ferdinand’s Plague I’owder was another variation of the same compound. Tliii formula given in Fernery’s Pharmacopoeia orders about twenty vegetable drugs with bole, hartshorn, ivory, and one scruple each of sapphires, hyacinths, emeralds, rubies, and garnets, in a total bulk of about I minces. The dose was from ^ scruple to 2 scruples.
Sir William Bulleyn, a famous physician in the reign of Henry VIII, and said to have been of the same family as the Queen, Anne Boleyn, in his “ Book of Simples,” which was a work of great renown in its day, gives the following recipe for Electuarium de Gemmis. " Take 2 drachms of white perles; two little peeces of nphyre; jacinthe, corneline, emerauldes, granettes, of eiieh an ounce; setwal, the sweate roote doronike, I lie rind of pomecitron, mace, basel seede, of each drachms; redde corall, amber, shaving of ivory, of each 2 drachms; rootes both of white and red behen, ginger, long pepper, spicknard, folium indicum, saffron nmlamon, of each one drachm ; troch diarodon, lignum aloes, of each half a small handful; cinnamon, galinga, /,nruboth, which is a kind of setwal, of each 1|- drachm :
I Inn pieces of gold and sylver, of each half a scruple; iiiii k, half a drachm.” The electuary was to be made
There are over 1,350 known hill forts in England and Wales.
Given the effects of erosion, some smaller sites have been destroyed and the actual number of hill forts constructed was probably higher, possibly around 1,600. England's hill forts are concentrated in the south and west,
with especially high numbers in the south-western peninsula (Devon and Cornwall have a total of 285 hill forts).
There are also 570 hill forts in Wales,
and some in Scotland. Although some originate in the Bronze Age, the majority of hill forts in Britain were constructed during the Iron Age (about 8th century BC to the Roman conquest of Britain). There was a trend in the 2nd century BC for hill forts to fall out of use.
53 Crassus killed by the Parthians at Carrhae.49 Civil war between Caesar and Pompey ends in Pompey’s defeat at Pharsalus (48).
47-44 Dictatorship of Caesar ends with his assassination.
43 Second Triumvirate of Antony (Caesar’s lieutenant), Octavian (Caesar’s heir) and Lepidus (a nonentity): defeats Caesar’s assassins at Philippi (42) and divides empire (40). 40 Herod recognized as King of Judea by the Romans: takes Jerusalem (37).
36 Lepidus dropped.
31 Octavian defeats Antony at Actium: suicide of Antony and Cleopatra (30).
27 Octavian takes the name Augustus.20 Parthians restore the standards captured at Battle o Carrhae in 53.
2 Augustus, who has refused the title of Dictator (but has been running the empire single-handed all the same), accepts the title of Pater Patriae.
= Bantu peoples reach Lake Victoria, Africa.
Religion & Learning113 Prince Liu Sheng, half brother of Emperor Wu Di, buried at Mancheng, Hebei, in a ‘jade suit’. Made of 2,690 separate jade plates sewn together with gold wire, the suit is an example of a type of burial gear exclusive to the imperial family.= Sima Qian’s Historical Records lays the foundations for Chinese historical writings.70 Cicero makes his
reputation by prosecuting
Verres, retiring Governor of
Sicily, for corruption.
c60 Diodorus begins work on
his World History.
c55 Lucretius On Nature.
51 Caesar Gallic War.48 Fire destroys the Royal Library at Alexandria.
47 Varro, Librarian of Rome, publishes his 41 volume encyclopaedia. c40 Sallust Jugurthine War. c30 Vitruvius On Architecture. 26 First volume of Livy’s History of Rome published.4 Death of Herod the Great traditionally associated with birth of Christ and ‘Massacre of the Innocents’.
Cities & Social Development118 Narbonne founded, the first Roman colony outside Italy. Becomes the capital of the province of Transalpine (southern) Gaul.87 Athens sacked by Sulla.73-71 Rebellion of the gladiators of Capua led by Spartacus.= Julius Caesar plans the refounding of Carthage and Corinth as Roman colonies: Augustus implements these plans on becoming Emperor.
Other important provincial colonies founded at this time include Lyons, Nimes, Trier and Seville.22 Herod founds Caesarea: begins rebuilding of the Temple of Jerusalem (20).
= Augustan building programme at Rome includes Theatre of Marcellus (13), Altar of Peace (9) and Augustan Forum (2).
= Construction of Temple (Maison Carree) and aqueduc (Pont du Gard) of Nimes.
— Aosta and Turin founded following Augustus’ pacification of the Alps.
Discovery & Invention= Cargo of Rhodian ship wrecked off Antikythera includes cogwheel device for calculating the relative motions of the sun, moon and 5 known planets (recovered 1900-2).
= Opening of trans-Asian ‘silk route’ between China and the West.= Invention of glass-blowing (?in the Levant) leads to glass vessels of all sizes and shapes becoming common articles throughout the Roman world.46 Caesar institutes the Julian calendar based purely on the solar (tropical) year. Uses value of 365.250 days as against true value of 365.242. 36 Mexico: Earliest surviving example of a dating inscription in the ‘Long Count’ style invented by the Olmecs.
= Use of the water wheel general in the Roman world.
= Tower of the Winds, Athens, bearing a wind vane and nine sundials and containing a water-clock: this probably operated an astronomical dial of the type later used in medieval astrolabes.
telling us we are all the same , well we are not,
Bradley hill fort,
Castle Ditch, Delamere
Eddisbury hill fort
Helsby hill fort
Oakmere hill fort
Woodhouses hill fort
The honour of the first great discoveries in Africa does not belong to Britain.
Africa was known from the very earliest recorded times.
Its long northern coast, balancing the south coast of Europe across the narrow basin of the Mediterranean, was a part of classical antiquity, a part even of classical mythology. From the Hesperides— if the islands of Canary were the Hesperides—to that narrow isthmus of sand at Suez which bridges Africa and Asia the ancients knew all that there was to be known. It is even possible that in that remote day Africa was circumnavigated. Stories of the Phoenicians who went down through the Red Sea and returned with the morning sun upon their right hand, are a traditional part of early African speculation. But it was the Portuguese in that strange, intensely romantic period of search and discovery that is the glory of their nation who first doubled the southernmost cape, and found the shape of Africa while they sought a route to India.
BRITAIN’S interest in Africa was originally aroused by Portuguese exiles who had IJ settled in Exeter. In 1588 Queen Elizabeth granted a patent to “certain merchants of Exeter and others of the West parts and of London for a trade to the river Senegal and Gambia in Guinea.” The Company, despite its royal patronage, failed. To reach even Gambia, just round the corner of the first great bulge of Africa, was a perilous and difficult journey in Elizabethan days. James I gave a charter to another company— “ the Company of Adventurers of London trading into Africa ”—and for very nearly three hundred years the history of the merchants of Africa is one first of adventure and only secondly of trade. From George Thompson, who was murdered on his way to Timbuctoo, to Cecil John Rhodes, walking unarmed into the camp of the Matabele, the spirit of trade is illuminated by the flame of adventure.
One of the earliest of voyages into Africa is admirably recorded in the pages of Hakluyt, and it is the more interesting for it illustrates both the manner and the methods of the first contacts that Britain had with the Dark Continent:
“ The first voyage of the right worshipfull and valiant knight Sir John Hawkins, sometimes treasurer of her Majesties navie Royal, made to the W. Indies 1562. Master John Haukins, having made divers voyages to the lies of the Canaries, and there by his good and upright dealing being growen in love and favour with the people, informed himself amongst them by diligent inquisition, of the state of the W. India, whereof hee had received some knowledge by the instructions of his father, but increased the same by the advertisements and reports of that people. And beingThe Oakland Institute said it released its findings after studying land deals in Ethiopia, Tanzania, South Sudan, Sierra Leone, Mali and Mozambique.
It said hedge funds and other speculators had, in 2009 alone, bought or leased nearly 60m hectares of land in Africa - an area the size of France.
"The same financial firms that drove us into a global recession by inflating the real estate bubble through risky financial manoeuvres are now doing the same with the world's food supply," the report said.
It added that some firms obtained land after deals with gullible traditional leaders or corrupt government officials.
"The research exposed investors who said it is easy to make a deal - that they could usually get what they wanted in exchange for giving a poor tribal chief a bottle of Johnnie Walker [whisky]," said Anuradha Mittal, executive director of the Oakland Institute.
"When these investors promise progress and jobs to local chiefs it sounds great, but they don't deliver."
The report said the contracts also gave investors a range of incentives, from unlimited water rights to tax waivers.
"No-one should believe that these investors are there to feed starving Africans.
Forts in Cornwall
Promontory Forts of CornwallThe British nobles in an attempt to prevent the total dissolution of the state and to end the civil war. gathered in an assembly and agreed on a compromise whereby Godnch. the Earl (Duke/King) of Cornwall, would reign as regent and hold the Kingdom of Britain in trust for the English heiress. GokJborough. the daughter of the late Anglican heir, Cymen. and his wife, Adela, the Saxon heiress, only child and daughter of England's first Bretwalda. Aella of Sussex Thus, preserving the fiction of centralized rule which was accepted only because the alternative was unthinkable.
St Agnes Beacon,
St Allen, Ash Bury,
Bury Castle, Bury Down, Lanreath, Blacketon Rings, Bosigran Castle,
Cadson Bury, Caer Bran, Caer Dane, Carn Brea, Castle Dore, Castle an Dinas, St. Columb Major, Castle Killibury Camp (also known as Kelly Rounds), Castle Pencaire (Breage), Chûn Castle, Crane Castle, St Cuby's Church
Dean Point, Demelza Castle, St Dennis Hill Fort, Dingerein Castle, Dodman Point, St Dominick Hillfort, Dunmere fort, Dunterton Hillfort,
Gear fort, Golden Camp, Gurnard's Head,
Hall Rings, Helbury Castle, Hilton Wood Castle,
Kelsey Head, Kenidjack Castle, Kenwyn Hillfort, Kestle Rings,
Ladock Hillfort, Largin Castle, Lescudjack Hill Fort, Lesingey Round, Liveloe,
Nattlebury St Newlyn East, St Newlyn East (Fiddlers Green),
Padderbury, Pencarrow Rounds, Penhargard Castle, Polyphant Hillfort, Prideaux Castle, Prospidnick Hill,
Rame Head, Redcliff Castle, Resugga Castle, Rough Tor, Round Wood, The Rumps,
Stowe's Pound, St Stephens Beacon,
Tregarrick Tor, Trereen Dinas, Tregeare Rounds, Trelaske hillfort, Trencrom Hill, Treryn Dinas, Tresawsen (Perranzabuloe), Trevelque Head, Trewinnion, Trewardreva, Treyarnon fort,
Black Dog,Berry Castle is an earthwork probably dating to the Iron Age close to Black Dog in Devon north of Crediton and west of Tiverton. It does not fit the traditional pattern of an Iron Age Hill fort. Although the earthwork would seem to be an incomplete enclosure, it is not at the top of a hill, although it is on the south east slope of a major hill which peaks at 199 Metres above Sea Level
, Weare Giffard,
Berry Head, Berry camp, Berry's Wood, Blackbury Camp, Blackdown Rings, Bolt Tail, Boringdon Camp, Bremridge Wood, Brent Hill, Brent Tor, Burley Wood, Burridge Fort
Cadbury Castle, Devon, Capton, Castle Close, Castle Dyke, Little Haldon, Castle Head, Devon, Castle Hill, Torrington, Clovelly Dykes, Cotley Castle, Cranbrook Castle, Cranmore Castle, Cunnilear Camp
Denbury Hill, Dewerstone, Dolbury, Dumpdon Hill, Embury Beacon
Halwell Camp, Hawkesdown Hill, Hembury, Hembury Castle, Tythecott, High Peak, Devon, Hillsborough, Devon, Holbury, Holbeton, Holne Chase Castle, Huntsham castle
Kentisbury Down, Killerton, Knowle Hill Castle,
Membury Castle, Milber Down, Mockham Down, Musbury Castle, Myrtlebury
Newberry Castle, Noss, Dartmouth,
Peppercombe Castle, Posbury, Prestonbury castle
Raddon Top, Roborough Castle,
Seaton Down, Shoulsbury castle, Sidbury Castle, Slapton Castle, Smythapark, Stanborough, Stockland Castle, Stoke Hill
Wasteberry Camp, Wind Hill, Windbury Head, Woodbury Castle, Woodbury, Dartmouth, Wooston Castle,
Yarrowbury, Yellowberries Copse
Abbotsbury Castle, Allington, Dorset,
Badbury Rings, Banbury Hill, Bindon Hill
Hambledon Hill, Hod Hill,
Lambert's Castle, Lewesdon Hill,
Maiden Castle, Dorset,
Pilsdon Pen, Poundbury Hill
Bury Hill, Winterbourne,
Camp Hill, Thornbury,
Knole Park Camp
The Castle, Tytherington,
Tog Hill, Cold Ashton,
Mellor hill fort
Ashleys Copse, Balksbury,
Beacon Hill, Bevisbury, Buckland Rings, Bullsdown Camp, Bury Hill,
Caesar's Camp, Castle Hill, Chilworth Ring,
Danebury, Dunwood Camp,
Hamble Common Camp,
Ladle Hill, Lockerley Camp,
Old Winchester Hill, Oliver's Battery, Oram's Arbour,
St. Catherine's Hill,
Tidbury Ring, The Frith, Toothill Fort Tourner Bury,
Whitsbury Castle, Winklebury, Woolbury
Camp Coppice, Castle Frome
Chase Hill, Ross on Wye
Sutton Walls Hill Fort
Breedon hill fort
Bloodgate Hill Iron Age Fort
Stanwick Iron Age Fortifications
Hunsbury Hill or Danes Camp
Old Fawdon Hill
Alfred's Castle (part of Berkshire until 1974),
Badbury Hill (part of Berkshire until 1974), Blewburton Hill (part of Berkshire until 1974),
Chastleton Barrow, Cherbury Camp (part of Berkshire until 1974),
Eynsham Hall Camp,
Lyneham Camp, also called The Roundabout,
Segsbury Camp (part of Berkshire until 1974),
Uffington Castle (part of Berkshire until 1974),
Wittenham Clumps (part of Berkshire until 1974)
Bayston Hill, Bury Ditches,
Caer Caradoc, Caus Castle, Clee Burf
Caer Caradoc (Chapel Lawn)
Titterstone Clee Hill
Backwell Hillfort, Banwell Camp, Bat's Castle, Bathampton Down, Berwick, Black Ball Camp, Blacker's Hill, Brean Down, Brent Knoll, Burgh Walls Camp, Burrington Camp, Burledge Hill, Bury Castle, Somerset,
Cadbury Camp (Tickenham), Cadbury Castle,
Somerset (South Cadbury), Cadbury Hill (Congresbury), Cannington Camp, Castle Neroche, Clatworthy Camp, Cleeve Toot, Compton Dundon, Conygar Hillfort, Cow Castle
Daw's Castle, Dinghurst fort, Dolebury Warren, Dowsborough,
Elworthy Barrows, Elborough Hill
Ham Hill, Somerset, Highbury Hill, Clutton,
Kenwalch's Castle, Kingsdown Camp, *Little Down
Maes Knoll, Maesbury Castle
Small Down Knoll, Stantonbury Camp, Sweetworthy,
Taps Combe Camp, Trendle Ring, Tunley Camp
Wain's Hill, Clevedon, Worlebury Camp[
Carl Wark, Wincobank (hill fort)
Castle Hill Old Fort, Stonnall
The Wall Hillfort
Kinver Edge Hillfort
Caesar's Camp, Rushmoor and Waverley
Caesar's Camp, Wimbledon Common
The Cardinal's Cap, or War Coppice Camp
Castle Old Fort
The Trundle, Chichester
Almondbury, Castle Hill, Huddersfield
Barwick in Elmet
Bincknoll Castle currently unproven, Bratton Camp, Bury Camp,
Castle Ditches, Castle Hill, Casterley Camp, Castle Rings, Chisbury, Chiselbury, Chisenbury Camp, Clearbury Ring, Cley Hill, Codford Circle (also known as Oldbury Camp, Wilsbury Ring, and Woldsbury).
Fosbury Camp, Figsbury Ring,
Liddington Castle, Little Woodbury,
Caer Bladon (modern Malmesbury)
Martinshill Fort, Membury Camp,
Ogbury Camp, Oldbury Castle, Old Sarum, Oliver's Castle,
Park Hill Camp,
Ringsbury Camp, Rybury,
Scratchbury Camp, Sidbury Hill
Whitesheet Castle, Winklebury Camp,